History

Certification of Polish aircraft
1926 - 1939

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Conspiracy
1939 - 1945

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Certification of military aircraft and helicopters
1945 - 1956

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Missile program
1956 - 1967

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Trainer aircraft program
1967 - 1993

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Conducting research and development
for the industry
1993 - 2021

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Development and expansion

Tests and projects

The SPAD S-51C1 fighter aircraft (No. 2.16) purchased in France was tested at the Institute in 1926.
The SPAD S-51C1 fighter aircraft (No. 2.16) purchased in France was tested at the Institute in 1926.

The SPAD S-51C1 design was developed by the French company Blériot SPAD Aéronautique. The first prototype, S-51-1, was flight-tested on 16.04.1924. The second prototype, S-51-2, on which the Polish version was based, made its first flight on 18.03.1925.^^ The Polish Air Force ordered 50 S-51C1s in 1925. Department IV of Air Navigation was interested bringing high-powered air-cooled radial engines into service. Compared to the liquid-cooled inline models, they boasted a offered of distinguishing features: lower engine weight, no cooling system, lower specific fuel consumption, and greater resistance to penetration by enemy fire. The aircraft were delivered in the first half of 1927. They were given the following type designation in Poland: 2, and the individual aircraft were numbered from 2.1 to 2.50. SPAD S-51s were assigned to the 121st and 122nd Fighter Escadrilles of the 1st Air Regiment (replacing S-61C1s), which were later renamed the 111th and 112th Fighter Escadrilles. A report from December 1928 shows that the 1st Air Regiment had 30SPAD S-5C1s (including one airframe without an engine), 20 of which were used in combat units, with the remaining ones used for training purposes. They were also used in schools: LSSiB, CWOL and in the Training Escadrille of the 2nd Air Regiment. Being very agile and manoeuvrable, they became known for appearing in many air shows and parades.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The SPAD S-51C1 design was developed by the French company Blériot SPAD Aéronautique. The first prototype, S-51-1, was flight-tested on 16.04.1924. The second prototype, S-51-2, on which the Polish version was based, made its first flight on 18.03.1925.^^ The Polish Air Force ordered 50 S-51C1s in 1925. Department IV of Air Navigation was interested bringing high-powered air-cooled radial engines into service. Compared to the liquid-cooled inline models, they boasted a offered of distinguishing features: lower engine weight, no cooling system, lower specific fuel consumption, and greater resistance to penetration by enemy fire. The aircraft were delivered in the first half of 1927. They were given the following type designation in Poland: 2, and the individual aircraft were numbered from 2.1 to 2.50. SPAD S-51s were assigned to the 121st and 122nd Fighter Escadrilles of the 1st Air Regiment (replacing S-61C1s), which were later renamed the 111th and 112th Fighter Escadrilles. A report from December 1928 shows that the 1st Air Regiment had 30SPAD S-5C1s (including one airframe without an engine), 20 of which were used in combat units, with the remaining ones used for training purposes. They were also used in schools: LSSiB, CWOL and in the Training Escadrille of the 2nd Air Regiment. Being very agile and manoeuvrable, they became known for appearing in many air shows and parades.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Mass-produced fighter aircraft PZL P.7a (no. 6.27) was tested at the Institute in 1933.
Mass-produced fighter aircraft PZL P.7a (no. 6.27) was tested at the Institute in 1933.

The PZL P.7 aircraft was designed at Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze by engineer Zygmunt Puławski as a later version of the PZL P.6 with the Bristol Jupiter VII F engine with a supercharger and reduction gear, which reached its maximum power at an altitude of 2750 m (4000 m according to other sources). The first prototype PZL P.7/I was flight-tested in October 1930, and the second prototype PZL P.7/II in the autumn of 1931. In August 1931, the PZL P.7/I prototype was demonstrated in Warsaw to a Romanian military delegation. In the autumn of 1931, the PZL P.7/I prototype was tested at the IBTL in Warsaw, showing superior performance compared to PZL P.6. In the second half of 1931, the second prototype was modified and became a base model for the mass-produced version. In 1932–1933, a total of 149 aircraft were produced under the PZL P.7a designation. The first mass-produced P.7a were delivered in mid-1932, and the last ones were ready in the second half of 1933. With the second prototype, the Air Force received 150 PZL P.7s, which were accepted into service as the main fighter aircraft. Including the first prototype, there was a total of 151 PZL P.7s.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The PZL P.7 aircraft was designed at Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze by engineer Zygmunt Puławski as a later version of the PZL P.6 with the Bristol Jupiter VII F engine with a supercharger and reduction gear, which reached its maximum power at an altitude of 2750 m (4000 m according to other sources). The first prototype PZL P.7/I was flight-tested in October 1930, and the second prototype PZL P.7/II in the autumn of 1931. In August 1931, the PZL P.7/I prototype was demonstrated in Warsaw to a Romanian military delegation. In the autumn of 1931, the PZL P.7/I prototype was tested at the IBTL in Warsaw, showing superior performance compared to PZL P.6. In the second half of 1931, the second prototype was modified and became a base model for the mass-produced version. In 1932–1933, a total of 149 aircraft were produced under the PZL P.7a designation. The first mass-produced P.7a were delivered in mid-1932, and the last ones were ready in the second half of 1933. With the second prototype, the Air Force received 150 PZL P.7s, which were accepted into service as the main fighter aircraft. Including the first prototype, there was a total of 151 PZL P.7s.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The export fighter aircraft PZL P.24/III was tested at the Institute in 1934 and 1935.
The export fighter aircraft PZL P.24/III was tested at the Institute in 1934 and 1935.

The design of the PZL P.24 was created by Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze (PZL) under the supervision of engineer Wsiewołod Jan Jakimiuk, who continued the development of the P-series fighters after the death of Zygmunt Puławski. This was a further development of the PZL P.11, which introduced major changes. The aircraft was equipped with the latest 14-cylinder Gnôme-Rhône 14Kds double radial engine with 725 horsepower (534 kW), intended exclusively for export. The French Gnôme-Rhône factory covered the bulk of the expense. The first PZL P.24/I prototype was ready in early 1933 and flight-tested in May 1933. The second PZL P.24/II prototype was flight-tested in March 1934. ^^ In the spring of 1936, the third prototype PZL P.24/III was built, which featured a much improved airframe adopted from the PZL P.11c. It was powered by the GR 14Kfs engine. Compared to the P.11c, the new P.24/III had different power unit, armament, cockpit windshield and landing gear fairings.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The design of the PZL P.24 was created by Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze (PZL) under the supervision of engineer Wsiewołod Jan Jakimiuk, who continued the development of the P-series fighters after the death of Zygmunt Puławski. This was a further development of the PZL P.11, which introduced major changes. The aircraft was equipped with the latest 14-cylinder Gnôme-Rhône 14Kds double radial engine with 725 horsepower (534 kW), intended exclusively for export. The French Gnôme-Rhône factory covered the bulk of the expense. The first PZL P.24/I prototype was ready in early 1933 and flight-tested in May 1933. The second PZL P.24/II prototype was flight-tested in March 1934. ^^ In the spring of 1936, the third prototype PZL P.24/III was built, which featured a much improved airframe adopted from the PZL P.11c. It was powered by the GR 14Kfs engine. Compared to the P.11c, the new P.24/III had different power unit, armament, cockpit windshield and landing gear fairings.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

P.11 C during tests at the Institute in the spring of 1935.
P.11 C during tests at the Institute in the spring of 1935.

In the summer of 1934, a new, upgraded prototype PZL P.11/V was built, designed in late 1933 and early 1934. The prototype underwent tests at the IBTL in October 1934 and it was exhibited at the XIV Air Salon in Paris (16 November-4 December 1934), after the engine was replaced with a Gnôme-Rhône 9Krse Mistral. The aircraft was delivered to Romania in the second half of 1935 (in the first half of 1936 according to [5]) as a prototype and base model for the PZL P.11f version. A total of 150 PZL P.11c’s were ordered for the Polish Air Force, bringing the total number of all P.11’s to 200. According to [1], the number of P.11c produced given in the literature – 175 – was overstated, but according to [7] that number is correct. The aircraft was modelled on the prototype version of PZL P.11/V. The aircraft was given the numerical type designation of 8, which meant that P.11c was recognised as a new type, not just an upgraded version. Production began at the old Mokotów plant in the second half of 1934 and was moved to the Okęcie plant in 1935, to be discontinued in mid-1936. According to [2], around 50 of the early production models had the Merkury V S2 engine, while the later models were powered by the Merkury VI S2. They were delivered to fighter escadrilles in late 1935, replacing the PZL P.7. The first P.11c’s were delivered to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Aviation Regiments in November 1935. The 1st Aviation Regiment, which already used P.11a’s, received P.11c’s later. Eventually, PZL P.11’s were delivered to 12 escadrilles: The 111th, 112th, 113th and 114th Fighter Escadrilles of the 1st Air Regiment, the 121st and 122nd FE of the 2nd Air Regiment, the 131st and 132nd FE of the 3rd Air Regiment, the 141st and 142nd FE of the 4th Air Regiment, the 152nd FE of the 5th Air Regiment and finally the 161st FE of the 6th Air Regiment. The 123rd, 151st and 162nd Fighter Escadrilles used PZL P.7a’s until September 1939. The P.11c had good handling, performance and manoeuvrability.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In the summer of 1934, a new, upgraded prototype PZL P.11/V was built, designed in late 1933 and early 1934. The prototype underwent tests at the IBTL in October 1934 and it was exhibited at the XIV Air Salon in Paris (16 November-4 December 1934), after the engine was replaced with a Gnôme-Rhône 9Krse Mistral. The aircraft was delivered to Romania in the second half of 1935 (in the first half of 1936 according to [5]) as a prototype and base model for the PZL P.11f version. A total of 150 PZL P.11c’s were ordered for the Polish Air Force, bringing the total number of all P.11’s to 200. According to [1], the number of P.11c produced given in the literature – 175 – was overstated, but according to [7] that number is correct. The aircraft was modelled on the prototype version of PZL P.11/V. The aircraft was given the numerical type designation of 8, which meant that P.11c was recognised as a new type, not just an upgraded version. Production began at the old Mokotów plant in the second half of 1934 and was moved to the Okęcie plant in 1935, to be discontinued in mid-1936. According to [2], around 50 of the early production models had the Merkury V S2 engine, while the later models were powered by the Merkury VI S2. They were delivered to fighter escadrilles in late 1935, replacing the PZL P.7. The first P.11c’s were delivered to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Aviation Regiments in November 1935. The 1st Aviation Regiment, which already used P.11a’s, received P.11c’s later. Eventually, PZL P.11’s were delivered to 12 escadrilles: The 111th, 112th, 113th and 114th Fighter Escadrilles of the 1st Air Regiment, the 121st and 122nd FE of the 2nd Air Regiment, the 131st and 132nd FE of the 3rd Air Regiment, the 141st and 142nd FE of the 4th Air Regiment, the 152nd FE of the 5th Air Regiment and finally the 161st FE of the 6th Air Regiment. The 123rd, 151st and 162nd Fighter Escadrilles used PZL P.7a’s until September 1939. The P.11c had good handling, performance and manoeuvrability.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The PWS-26 trainer aircraft during tests at the Institute in 1936. At that time, the aircraft undergoing flight tests had their rudders painted white to distinguish them.
The PWS-26 trainer aircraft during tests at the Institute in 1936. At that time, the aircraft undergoing flight tests had their rudders painted white to distinguish them.

In 1936, engineer August Bobek Zdaniewski designed a modified version of the PWS-16 bis, called PWS-26. It was intended for training aerial combat, aerobatics and both dive and level flight bombing. The design of the aircraft was reinforced and it was adapted to flying upside down. It was also equipped with a machine gun and a gun camera, bomb bays under the wings, and aiming windows in the bottom of the fuselage. Some minor structural and operational improvements were also made. The prototype was flight-tested in the autumn of 1936.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In 1936, engineer August Bobek Zdaniewski designed a modified version of the PWS-16 bis, called PWS-26. It was intended for training aerial combat, aerobatics and both dive and level flight bombing. The design of the aircraft was reinforced and it was adapted to flying upside down. It was also equipped with a machine gun and a gun camera, bomb bays under the wings, and aiming windows in the bottom of the fuselage. Some minor structural and operational improvements were also made. The prototype was flight-tested in the autumn of 1936.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The PZL.42 (an experimental version of the PZL.23, designed by Tadeusz Sołtyk) tested in 1936.
The PZL.42 (an experimental version of the PZL.23, designed by Tadeusz Sołtyk) tested in 1936.

The PZL.23 Karaś was a light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft designed by engineer Stanisław Prauss in the early 1930s. The first prototype with an English-designed radial engine was flight-tested in the summer of 1934. By 1935, two more prototypes were built with a number of design modifications. In 1936, 40 aircraft were produced, and afterwards another 240 were made with a different engine. They were delivered to bomber and reconnaissance units. A better armed and faster version called the PZL.43, powered by a more powerful French-designed engine, was developed for export. These aircraft with two engine versions were supplied to Bulgaria until the outbreak of the war. The PZL.23 was the primary light bomber of the Polish Air Force during the Invasion of Poland.^^ The PZL.42 was an experimental version of the Karaś (a modified PZL.23B) with a twin tail. It was an experimental aircraft for testing the systems of the planned PZL.46 Sum, a reconnaissance and bomber aircraft and successor of the Karaś.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The PZL.23 Karaś was a light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft designed by engineer Stanisław Prauss in the early 1930s. The first prototype with an English-designed radial engine was flight-tested in the summer of 1934. By 1935, two more prototypes were built with a number of design modifications. In 1936, 40 aircraft were produced, and afterwards another 240 were made with a different engine. They were delivered to bomber and reconnaissance units. A better armed and faster version called the PZL.43, powered by a more powerful French-designed engine, was developed for export. These aircraft with two engine versions were supplied to Bulgaria until the outbreak of the war. The PZL.23 was the primary light bomber of the Polish Air Force during the Invasion of Poland.^^ The PZL.42 was an experimental version of the Karaś (a modified PZL.23B) with a twin tail. It was an experimental aircraft for testing the systems of the planned PZL.46 Sum, a reconnaissance and bomber aircraft and successor of the Karaś.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

PZL.44 Wicher, tested at the Institute in 1938.
PZL.44 Wicher, tested at the Institute in 1938.

Since mid-1930’s, the global aviation industry switched to fast low-wing aircraft with retractable landing gear, which is why the Ministry of Communication commissioned the PZL to build this type of aircraft. The commission was received in 1935. The design of the PZL.44 Wicher was created in 1936–1937 by a team under the supervision of engineer Wsiewołod Jakimiuk. Initially, the aircraft was to be powered by Pegasus X engines, with 507 kW (690 KM) each. The prototype was flight-tested on 12 March 1938 and in 1939 it passed the operational tests in LOT Polish Airlines. However, tests showed that the aircraft had lower cruising speed than expected and did not meet specified requirements.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Since mid-1930’s, the global aviation industry switched to fast low-wing aircraft with retractable landing gear, which is why the Ministry of Communication commissioned the PZL to build this type of aircraft. The commission was received in 1935. The design of the PZL.44 Wicher was created in 1936–1937 by a team under the supervision of engineer Wsiewołod Jakimiuk. Initially, the aircraft was to be powered by Pegasus X engines, with 507 kW (690 KM) each. The prototype was flight-tested on 12 March 1938 and in 1939 it passed the operational tests in LOT Polish Airlines. However, tests showed that the aircraft had lower cruising speed than expected and did not meet specified requirements.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The RWD-14 Czapla observation and liaison aircraft during tests at the Institute in 1938.
The RWD-14 Czapla observation and liaison aircraft during tests at the Institute in 1938.

In 1933, Stanislaw Rogalski and engineer Jerzy Drzewiecki designed the RWD-12 observation aircraft commissioned by the Air Force at Doświadczalne Warsztaty Lotnicze. That project was discontinued, but a new design, called RWD-14, with a 294 kW engine, was created in 1934–1935. It was intended as a successor of the Lublin R-XIII observation and liaison aircraft. The prototype, RWD-14/I, powered by a Pratt-Whitney Wasp TB engine, was built in 1935 and made its first flight in December 1935. In June 1936, the aircraft underwent flight tests at the Institute of Aviation. It was concluded that the landing gear was too narrow, and the fuel tank design was not suitable. Furthermore, the Air Force required a folding wing design. Bronislaw Zurakowski was in charge of the modifying the aircraft. The second modified prototype, RWD-14/II, was built and flight-tested in January 1937. Afterwards, the improved third version RWD-14/III was flight-tested in early 1938. Both prototypes were designated RWD-14a. The RWD-14/II prototype crashed on 20 April 1937, while the RWD-14/III prototype crashed in January 1938. Apparently, the cause of the accidents was a warping of the fuselage, which caused the rudder lever to get caught in the fuselage structure. It was not until the fourth prototype, RWD-14/IV, flight-tested in the first half of 1938, that the aircraft passed flight tests, completed in July 1938. It was accepted for mass production as RWD-14b.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In 1933, Stanislaw Rogalski and engineer Jerzy Drzewiecki designed the RWD-12 observation aircraft commissioned by the Air Force at Doświadczalne Warsztaty Lotnicze. That project was discontinued, but a new design, called RWD-14, with a 294 kW engine, was created in 1934–1935. It was intended as a successor of the Lublin R-XIII observation and liaison aircraft. The prototype, RWD-14/I, powered by a Pratt-Whitney Wasp TB engine, was built in 1935 and made its first flight in December 1935. In June 1936, the aircraft underwent flight tests at the Institute of Aviation. It was concluded that the landing gear was too narrow, and the fuel tank design was not suitable. Furthermore, the Air Force required a folding wing design. Bronislaw Zurakowski was in charge of the modifying the aircraft. The second modified prototype, RWD-14/II, was built and flight-tested in January 1937. Afterwards, the improved third version RWD-14/III was flight-tested in early 1938. Both prototypes were designated RWD-14a. The RWD-14/II prototype crashed on 20 April 1937, while the RWD-14/III prototype crashed in January 1938. Apparently, the cause of the accidents was a warping of the fuselage, which caused the rudder lever to get caught in the fuselage structure. It was not until the fourth prototype, RWD-14/IV, flight-tested in the first half of 1938, that the aircraft passed flight tests, completed in July 1938. It was accepted for mass production as RWD-14b.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Prototype of the PZL.46 Sum reconnaissance and bomber aircraft tested at the Institute in 1939.
Prototype of the PZL.46 Sum reconnaissance and bomber aircraft tested at the Institute in 1939.

A reconnaissance and bomber aircraft designed in early 1936 by engineer Stanisław Prauss. It was intended as a successor to the Karaś, with more powerful armament and a higher flight speed. It benefited from the experience gained from the development of the PZL.42. The prototype was flight-tested in 1938 and exhibited at the XVI International Aviation Salon in Paris. The second prototype was flight-tested at the beginning of 1939. The military ordered a large number of them and mass production began, eventually interrupted by the war.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

A reconnaissance and bomber aircraft designed in early 1936 by engineer Stanisław Prauss. It was intended as a successor to the Karaś, with more powerful armament and a higher flight speed. It benefited from the experience gained from the development of the PZL.42. The prototype was flight-tested in 1938 and exhibited at the XVI International Aviation Salon in Paris. The second prototype was flight-tested at the beginning of 1939. The military ordered a large number of them and mass production began, eventually interrupted by the war.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The BŻ-1 (SP-GIL) – the first Polish helicopter, the beginning of tests. 1950.
The BŻ-1 (SP-GIL) – the first Polish helicopter, the beginning of tests. 1950.

The helicopter designated as SP-GIL (which stands for “Główny Instytut Lotnictwa” – the Central Aviation Institute – as the organisation was called between 1948 and 1952) was a single-seat helicopter with a two-bladed rotor, with an small, two-bladed tail rotor used for both manoeuvring and stabilising the helicopter (the Hiller system).^^ Tests of the helicopter began in early 1950, but even before they started, it sustained damage when a gust of wind knocked it over. After repairs, testing resumed in April 1950. It was piloted by the designer himself, engineer Bronisław Żurakowski, who had never flown in a helicopter before. During the first flights, the helicopter was repeatedly damaged. As a result, it underwent numerous repairs and modifications. In the autumn of 1950, the blade design was upgraded to make them more rigid, and the guide vanes were increased in size. At that time, Captain Wiktor Pełka joined the tests. He was an airline pilot who also served as a test pilot at the Institute. In Paris, he made several training flights on a Hiller helicopter at his own expense. His experience made it possible to accelerate the SP-GIL test flights. He made about 100 flights on the helicopter, and in 1951 he showed the model to civil and military authorities, and to the public during the Air Show at Okęcie Airport on 20 July 1952. In the summer of that year, the helicopter was damaged in another accident, tipping over while landing. After it was repaired, a gust of wind caused the rotor to cut off the tail boom during a training flight of pilot Andrzej Abłamowicz. Up to that point, 169 flights with a total time of 20 hours and 21 minutes had been performed. The helicopter was rebuilt after nearly 3 years by pilots R. Witkowski and A. Śmigiel and made 185 more flights, for a total of 12 hours and 30 minutes. It was supposed to were to facilitate the anticipated flight tests of the BŻ-4 Żuk helicopter. A failure of the tail rotor gear finally removed the helicopter from the tests. The helicopter is currently exhibited in the Aviation Museum in Krakow.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The helicopter designated as SP-GIL (which stands for “Główny Instytut Lotnictwa” – the Central Aviation Institute – as the organisation was called between 1948 and 1952) was a single-seat helicopter with a two-bladed rotor, with an small, two-bladed tail rotor used for both manoeuvring and stabilising the helicopter (the Hiller system).^^ Tests of the helicopter began in early 1950, but even before they started, it sustained damage when a gust of wind knocked it over. After repairs, testing resumed in April 1950. It was piloted by the designer himself, engineer Bronisław Żurakowski, who had never flown in a helicopter before. During the first flights, the helicopter was repeatedly damaged. As a result, it underwent numerous repairs and modifications. In the autumn of 1950, the blade design was upgraded to make them more rigid, and the guide vanes were increased in size. At that time, Captain Wiktor Pełka joined the tests. He was an airline pilot who also served as a test pilot at the Institute. In Paris, he made several training flights on a Hiller helicopter at his own expense. His experience made it possible to accelerate the SP-GIL test flights. He made about 100 flights on the helicopter, and in 1951 he showed the model to civil and military authorities, and to the public during the Air Show at Okęcie Airport on 20 July 1952. In the summer of that year, the helicopter was damaged in another accident, tipping over while landing. After it was repaired, a gust of wind caused the rotor to cut off the tail boom during a training flight of pilot Andrzej Abłamowicz. Up to that point, 169 flights with a total time of 20 hours and 21 minutes had been performed. The helicopter was rebuilt after nearly 3 years by pilots R. Witkowski and A. Śmigiel and made 185 more flights, for a total of 12 hours and 30 minutes. It was supposed to were to facilitate the anticipated flight tests of the BŻ-4 Żuk helicopter. A failure of the tail rotor gear finally removed the helicopter from the tests. The helicopter is currently exhibited in the Aviation Museum in Krakow.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Floatplane version of Piper L-4 H Cub developed at the Institute. Early 1950s.
Floatplane version of Piper L-4 H Cub developed at the Institute. Early 1950s.

At the end of 1940’s, Piper Cubs Po-2s were the standard equipment of regional Aero Club of Air League. They were used for flight training without ground visibility, on designated routes and as executive transport. They also participated in national air sports competitions.^^ Piper aircraft were also used for experimental purposes: L-4H (SP-AFY), was tested as a floatplane version, as the first hydroplane in Poland after the war. The floatplane conversion project was designed by Jerzy Teisseyre. Wooden floats were made by the Designated Design Group of the CSS. It was tested in 1953.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

At the end of 1940’s, Piper Cubs Po-2s were the standard equipment of regional Aero Club of Air League. They were used for flight training without ground visibility, on designated routes and as executive transport. They also participated in national air sports competitions.^^ Piper aircraft were also used for experimental purposes: L-4H (SP-AFY), was tested as a floatplane version, as the first hydroplane in Poland after the war. The floatplane conversion project was designed by Jerzy Teisseyre. Wooden floats were made by the Designated Design Group of the CSS. It was tested in 1953.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Prototype of the Zuch 2 training aircraft flight-tested in 1949.
Prototype of the Zuch 2 training aircraft flight-tested in 1949.

The aerobatic trainer version of the LWD Zuch was developed for aero clubs in early 1948. In addition to the inline engine with less aerodynamic resistance and more power, the aircraft was equipped with crocodile flaps and profiled cantilever landing gear. The first flight was made already in 1948. The aircraft was tested at the Central Aviation Institute, where it was found to have good aerobatic properties. Only the prototype of the Zuch I aircraft was made, since the licenced production of the Czech-designed inline engine was not started. It was used until 1955. It is considered to be one of the best aerobatic aircraft of the interwar period. Later Zuch 2 aircraft were also built with German radial engines, a supply of which was obtained by LWD. Structurally, Zuch 2 was similar to Zuch I. Its performance was slightly worse due to higher aerodynamic drag of the engine and its lower actual power. A small series of 5 improved Zuch 2 aircraft was manufactured in 1950. They were used in aero clubs until 1955.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The aerobatic trainer version of the LWD Zuch was developed for aero clubs in early 1948. In addition to the inline engine with less aerodynamic resistance and more power, the aircraft was equipped with crocodile flaps and profiled cantilever landing gear. The first flight was made already in 1948. The aircraft was tested at the Central Aviation Institute, where it was found to have good aerobatic properties. Only the prototype of the Zuch I aircraft was made, since the licenced production of the Czech-designed inline engine was not started. It was used until 1955. It is considered to be one of the best aerobatic aircraft of the interwar period. Later Zuch 2 aircraft were also built with German radial engines, a supply of which was obtained by LWD. Structurally, Zuch 2 was similar to Zuch I. Its performance was slightly worse due to higher aerodynamic drag of the engine and its lower actual power. A small series of 5 improved Zuch 2 aircraft was manufactured in 1950. They were used in aero clubs until 1955.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

Szpak 4T – approved in 1949 and used at the Institute as an executive transport until 1955.
Szpak 4T – approved in 1949 and used at the Institute as an executive transport until 1955.

The LWD Szpak was the first Polish aircraft built after the World War II (test flight made on 28 October 1945). The Szpak 4T version was the first mass produced aircraft after the war. Ten aircraft were produced at WSK Mielec.^^ The Szpak 4T was a composite-design four-seater strutted low-wing recreational aircraft. The Szpak series was used in aero clubs. They also made international courier flights. The last model flew at the Institute until 1953.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The LWD Szpak was the first Polish aircraft built after the World War II (test flight made on 28 October 1945). The Szpak 4T version was the first mass produced aircraft after the war. Ten aircraft were produced at WSK Mielec.^^ The Szpak 4T was a composite-design four-seater strutted low-wing recreational aircraft. The Szpak series was used in aero clubs. They also made international courier flights. The last model flew at the Institute until 1953.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The Żak 3 – approved at the Institute in 1949.
The Żak 3 – approved at the Institute in 1949.

The LWD Żak is a two-seater light recreational aircraft for aero clubs. It was flight-tested on 23 March 1947. It had a low-wing composite-design aircraft with fixed landing gear. Several versions of this aircraft were developed.^^ The LWD Żak 3 was produced in a series of 10 aircraft at Lotnicze Warsztaty in Łódź. It was the first Polish aircraft with a tricycle landing gear.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The LWD Żak is a two-seater light recreational aircraft for aero clubs. It was flight-tested on 23 March 1947. It had a low-wing composite-design aircraft with fixed landing gear. Several versions of this aircraft were developed.^^ The LWD Żak 3 was produced in a series of 10 aircraft at Lotnicze Warsztaty in Łódź. It was the first Polish aircraft with a tricycle landing gear.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The Miś light transport aircraft designed by Tadeusz Sołtyk, flight-tested at the Institute in 1951.
The Miś light transport aircraft designed by Tadeusz Sołtyk, flight-tested at the Institute in 1951.

It was a transport aircraft commissioned by the military and intended as a flying laboratory to explore the possible designs of unmanned reconnaissance aircraft operating in areas contaminated with radiation. Designed in 1947–1948 in Łódź. It had a simple composite design. Flight-tested in 1948. A modified aircraft, with the overcompensation of ailerons and elevators removed, was flight-tested again in 1950. Further defects associated with engine installation were removed during tests at the Central Aviation Institute. The aircraft handled well and was praised by the pilots and showed many advantages, but the then available German in-line engines were underpowered.^^ Furthermore, the work on the aircraft was discontinued, as the design bureau was closed and the commissioning party lost interest in the project. The future showed that the twin-engine top-wing design with a spacious fuselage and a tricycle landing gear became the standard for this type of aircraft. In the 1950s, the aircraft was used by the military as a stationary target in a training area.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

It was a transport aircraft commissioned by the military and intended as a flying laboratory to explore the possible designs of unmanned reconnaissance aircraft operating in areas contaminated with radiation. Designed in 1947–1948 in Łódź. It had a simple composite design. Flight-tested in 1948. A modified aircraft, with the overcompensation of ailerons and elevators removed, was flight-tested again in 1950. Further defects associated with engine installation were removed during tests at the Central Aviation Institute. The aircraft handled well and was praised by the pilots and showed many advantages, but the then available German in-line engines were underpowered.^^ Furthermore, the work on the aircraft was discontinued, as the design bureau was closed and the commissioning party lost interest in the project. The future showed that the twin-engine top-wing design with a spacious fuselage and a tricycle landing gear became the standard for this type of aircraft. In the 1950s, the aircraft was used by the military as a stationary target in a training area.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

Tests of the Pegaz motor glider.
Tests of the Pegaz motor glider.

The motor glider was flight-tested on 16 July 1949 at the Institute of Aviation. It was the first Polish post-war motor glider. The Pegaz underwent factory and type approval tests at the Central Aviation Institute between December 1949 and April 1950. It received the type certificate in 1950. The motor glider was easy and safe to fly and had good flight characteristics, even with the engine off. The Pegaz participated in air shows three times, in 1949, 1950 and 1951, flying over the stands. In 1950, the Department of Civil Aviation organised test flights. The feedback on its flying qualities was very positive. After registration, it was handed over to the Warsaw Aero Club for a trial period of use, with approximately 100 hours of flying. The glider remained unused for many years, and was eventually scrapped. In August 1964, the Warsaw Aero Club donated it to the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The motor glider was flight-tested on 16 July 1949 at the Institute of Aviation. It was the first Polish post-war motor glider. The Pegaz underwent factory and type approval tests at the Central Aviation Institute between December 1949 and April 1950. It received the type certificate in 1950. The motor glider was easy and safe to fly and had good flight characteristics, even with the engine off. The Pegaz participated in air shows three times, in 1949, 1950 and 1951, flying over the stands. In 1950, the Department of Civil Aviation organised test flights. The feedback on its flying qualities was very positive. After registration, it was handed over to the Warsaw Aero Club for a trial period of use, with approximately 100 hours of flying. The glider remained unused for many years, and was eventually scrapped. In August 1964, the Warsaw Aero Club donated it to the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Prototype of the CSS-10C training aircraft undergoing tests at the Institute.
Prototype of the CSS-10C training aircraft undergoing tests at the Institute.

The first aircraft designed by the Central Aircraft Design Bureau in Warsaw, commissioned by the Ministry of Communication, was the CSS-10 training aircraft designed by Franciszek Misztal and Stanisław Lassota. The documentation of the aircraft was made with the help of students from the Wawelberg and Rotwand Engineering School during the academic year of 1946/1947. Two prototypes were built in 1948 by PZL-Mielec.^^ The first prototype, CSS-10A, powered by a Walter Mikron III engine, was flight-tested on 3 September 1948. The second CSS-10C, powered by a Walter Minor 4-III engine, made its first flight on 24 April 1949. At that time, the production of Walter engines under license was scheduled to begin. The CSS-10A aircraft also differed from the CSS-10C in that it had a slight wing sweep. The CSS-10A underwent official tests at the Central Institute of Aviation between 23 October and 22 December 1951. Because of its low power to total weight ratio, it had a long take-off, slow climb, and unsatisfactory stall and corkscrew performance. Therefore, it was not considered suitable for training.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The first aircraft designed by the Central Aircraft Design Bureau in Warsaw, commissioned by the Ministry of Communication, was the CSS-10 training aircraft designed by Franciszek Misztal and Stanisław Lassota. The documentation of the aircraft was made with the help of students from the Wawelberg and Rotwand Engineering School during the academic year of 1946/1947. Two prototypes were built in 1948 by PZL-Mielec.^^ The first prototype, CSS-10A, powered by a Walter Mikron III engine, was flight-tested on 3 September 1948. The second CSS-10C, powered by a Walter Minor 4-III engine, made its first flight on 24 April 1949. At that time, the production of Walter engines under license was scheduled to begin. The CSS-10A aircraft also differed from the CSS-10C in that it had a slight wing sweep. The CSS-10A underwent official tests at the Central Institute of Aviation between 23 October and 22 December 1951. Because of its low power to total weight ratio, it had a long take-off, slow climb, and unsatisfactory stall and corkscrew performance. Therefore, it was not considered suitable for training.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Prototype of the CSS-11 training and aerobatic aircraft. Tested at the Institute.
Prototype of the CSS-11 training and aerobatic aircraft. Tested at the Institute.

In August 1947, engineer Leszek Dulęba started working on the design of the CSS-11 training and aerobatic aircraft at the Central Aircraft Design Bureau in Warsaw. In 1948, two prototypes were built at the CSS workshops, which differed slightly in equipment, propellers and rudder surfaces. The first prototype was flight-tested on 16 October 1948. The aircraft was lighter than designed and its performance was better than anticipated, which is rare. The aircraft also had good handling qualities and performed all flying manoeuvrers correctly and with ease. It was suitable for use as a training and aerobatic aircraft. It was considered one of the best Polish aerobatic aircraft designs of the postwar years. Despite of 30 CSS-11’s being commissioned by aero clubs, the aircraft was not mass-produced, since the licenced production of the Walter Minor 6-III engines was eventually cancelled. Since works on this type was discontinued, both prototypes were scrapped in 1952–1953.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In August 1947, engineer Leszek Dulęba started working on the design of the CSS-11 training and aerobatic aircraft at the Central Aircraft Design Bureau in Warsaw. In 1948, two prototypes were built at the CSS workshops, which differed slightly in equipment, propellers and rudder surfaces. The first prototype was flight-tested on 16 October 1948. The aircraft was lighter than designed and its performance was better than anticipated, which is rare. The aircraft also had good handling qualities and performed all flying manoeuvrers correctly and with ease. It was suitable for use as a training and aerobatic aircraft. It was considered one of the best Polish aerobatic aircraft designs of the postwar years. Despite of 30 CSS-11’s being commissioned by aero clubs, the aircraft was not mass-produced, since the licenced production of the Walter Minor 6-III engines was eventually cancelled. Since works on this type was discontinued, both prototypes were scrapped in 1952–1953.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The IS-4 Jastrząb aerobatic glider undergoing type approval tests at the Institute in 1951.
The IS-4 Jastrząb aerobatic glider undergoing type approval tests at the Institute in 1951.

At the Gliding Institute, after designed a training gliders (IS-3 ABC and IS-2 Mucha) and a performance glider (IS-1 Sęp), and reconstruction of gliders: IS-A Salamandra, IS-B Komar-48 and IS-C Żuraw, the IS-4 Jastrząb aerobatic glider was designed. The principal designer of this glider was engineer Józef Niespał. The first design works started in 1947. The aerodynamic and structural design was developed in 1948–1949. The first prototype was flight-tested on 21 December 1949. It had no aerodynamic brakes, only downward tilting flaps located in the rear part of the wing, from the fuselage to the ailerons. The glider had a substantial unladen weight of 231 kg, which made it very difficult to transport around the airfield, since it had no wheel or lift handles, and to take off, since it gathered speed slowly, causing one of the wings to fall onto the ground in the initial phase of the run-up.^^ The second prototype was built with no brakes, no flaps and no wheel, with some improvements made during trials; aerodynamic brakes were installed and the size of the control stick was modified. Factory tests were carried out on both prototypes, on which the production documentation was based. In 1950–1951, the second prototype underwent official tests at the Institute of Aviation.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

At the Gliding Institute, after designed a training gliders (IS-3 ABC and IS-2 Mucha) and a performance glider (IS-1 Sęp), and reconstruction of gliders: IS-A Salamandra, IS-B Komar-48 and IS-C Żuraw, the IS-4 Jastrząb aerobatic glider was designed. The principal designer of this glider was engineer Józef Niespał. The first design works started in 1947. The aerodynamic and structural design was developed in 1948–1949. The first prototype was flight-tested on 21 December 1949. It had no aerodynamic brakes, only downward tilting flaps located in the rear part of the wing, from the fuselage to the ailerons. The glider had a substantial unladen weight of 231 kg, which made it very difficult to transport around the airfield, since it had no wheel or lift handles, and to take off, since it gathered speed slowly, causing one of the wings to fall onto the ground in the initial phase of the run-up.^^ The second prototype was built with no brakes, no flaps and no wheel, with some improvements made during trials; aerodynamic brakes were installed and the size of the control stick was modified. Factory tests were carried out on both prototypes, on which the production documentation was based. In 1950–1951, the second prototype underwent official tests at the Institute of Aviation.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Lim-2 (MiG 15) licensed fighter aircraft. Polish prototypes of this aircraft were tested at the Institute.
Lim-2 (MiG 15) licensed fighter aircraft. Polish prototypes of this aircraft were tested at the Institute.

In the 1950s, aircraft assembly plants started mass production of the MiG fighter aircraft under licence. A wide range of flight and endurance tests of materials, components and complete aircraft were carried out at the Institute.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

In the 1950s, aircraft assembly plants started mass production of the MiG fighter aircraft under licence. A wide range of flight and endurance tests of materials, components and complete aircraft were carried out at the Institute.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

The CSS-13 utility aircraft – a licensed modified version of the Soviet Po-2. The Institute conducted type approval tests of mass-produced aircraft and static tests of the biplane wing bays.
The CSS-13 utility aircraft – a licensed modified version of the Soviet Po-2. The Institute conducted type approval tests of mass-produced aircraft and static tests of the biplane wing bays.

A medical version of the licenced Soviet Po-2 aircraft, designed to transport a patient and a doctor. It was designed at the Institute in 1953. The stretcher with the patient was placed over the fuselage behind the cockpit, covered with a sliding cover. It was developed at WSK Okęcie, where a single passenger revision was also made. Fifty-nine were built. Most of them were given to the Air Force, where they served until 1958, with some used as civil aircraft. Later, all of them were used in medical aviation organizations all over Poland until 1965, and also in aero clubs. During their final years, they were used for transporting medicine and food, mainly during natural disasters.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

A medical version of the licenced Soviet Po-2 aircraft, designed to transport a patient and a doctor. It was designed at the Institute in 1953. The stretcher with the patient was placed over the fuselage behind the cockpit, covered with a sliding cover. It was developed at WSK Okęcie, where a single passenger revision was also made. Fifty-nine were built. Most of them were given to the Air Force, where they served until 1958, with some used as civil aircraft. Later, all of them were used in medical aviation organizations all over Poland until 1965, and also in aero clubs. During their final years, they were used for transporting medicine and food, mainly during natural disasters.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

In 1951, the certification of the Polish training aircraft called Junak 2 was carried out at the Institute. Mass-produced aircraft tests were also conducted at the Institute.
In 1951, the certification of the Polish training aircraft called Junak 2 was carried out at the Institute. Mass-produced aircraft tests were also conducted at the Institute.

The LWD Junak was the first post-war Polish-built aircraft produced in large quantities for the military. Subsequent development versions were named Junak 1 and Junak 2. It was designed in Łódź.^^ In 1952–1954, it was the basic equipment of officer training escadrilles at the flight schools in Dęblin and Radom. It was delivered to aero clubs for pilot instruction and preliminary training of future military pilots.^^ The Junak 2’s were also used to tow gliders. The first Junak was designed in 1947. It was flight-tested in 1948. The aircraft exhibited good stability and was easy to fly. It was approved for full aerobatics. Composite low-wing design. It had fixed landing gear with a tail wheel and a relatively simple cabin design. In 1948, an aerobatic version was developed for aero clubs, called Zuch. A total of 105 Junaks were manufactured in 1951–1954. They were successfully used until 1972. One of the Junak 2 aircraft was used at the Institute as an experimental aircraft.^^ Photo and text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

The LWD Junak was the first post-war Polish-built aircraft produced in large quantities for the military. Subsequent development versions were named Junak 1 and Junak 2. It was designed in Łódź.^^ In 1952–1954, it was the basic equipment of officer training escadrilles at the flight schools in Dęblin and Radom. It was delivered to aero clubs for pilot instruction and preliminary training of future military pilots.^^ The Junak 2’s were also used to tow gliders. The first Junak was designed in 1947. It was flight-tested in 1948. The aircraft exhibited good stability and was easy to fly. It was approved for full aerobatics. Composite low-wing design. It had fixed landing gear with a tail wheel and a relatively simple cabin design. In 1948, an aerobatic version was developed for aero clubs, called Zuch. A total of 105 Junaks were manufactured in 1951–1954. They were successfully used until 1972. One of the Junak 2 aircraft was used at the Institute as an experimental aircraft.^^ Photo and text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

Tests of a 6-cylinder WN-6 engine on the Junak 2.
Tests of a 6-cylinder WN-6 engine on the Junak 2.

In 1948–1957, test beds were built at the Institute for testing piston engines. A number of trials and tests were carried out with the aid of the research base, including the 180 hp 6-cylinder WN-6 engine with reciprocating cylinders (principal designer: engineer Wiktor Narkiewicz), which was tested for approximately 800 hours on the engine test bed at the Institute in 1958–1960. It was designed for light aircraft. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

In 1948–1957, test beds were built at the Institute for testing piston engines. A number of trials and tests were carried out with the aid of the research base, including the 180 hp 6-cylinder WN-6 engine with reciprocating cylinders (principal designer: engineer Wiktor Narkiewicz), which was tested for approximately 800 hours on the engine test bed at the Institute in 1958–1960. It was designed for light aircraft. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The CSS-13S medical aircraft prototype. Developed and tested at the Institute in 1953.
The CSS-13S medical aircraft prototype. Developed and tested at the Institute in 1953.

In 1952, the airframe construction bureau was established at the Institute under the supervision of Tadeusz Sołtyk. Initially, a version of the Junak with a fixed tricycle landing gear was developed, and the CSS-11 was converted into a medical configuration, with space for the patient in the back of the fuselage. The main task of the bureau was the development of a metal structure piston-powered training aircraft.^^ Photo and text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

In 1952, the airframe construction bureau was established at the Institute under the supervision of Tadeusz Sołtyk. Initially, a version of the Junak with a fixed tricycle landing gear was developed, and the CSS-11 was converted into a medical configuration, with space for the patient in the back of the fuselage. The main task of the bureau was the development of a metal structure piston-powered training aircraft.^^ Photo and text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

Static tests of the Junak 3. 1953.
Static tests of the Junak 3. 1953.

The TS-9 Junak 3 is a development version of the Junak 2 aircraft developed at the Institute in 1952. It was created in response to the need introduce a tricycle landing gear, since the Polish Air Force started to use fighter planes with landing gear of this type.^^ The new version was also equipped with a different propeller, a radio and an on-board telephone, a radio direction finder and a modified fuel system. The aircraft was flight-tested in 1953 by the Institute’s test pilots.^^ It was approved for full aerobatics. The aircraft was produced in two versions in 1954–1955. It was used in aero clubs from 1956 onwards. In 1954–1955, WSK-Okęcie produced 146 Junak 3’s. A large number of military and aero club pilots trained on them. The Junaks were in use until 1967. They were regarded as easy to fly, stable and manoeuvrable. They were very popular in their time, participating in various shows, events and competitions.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The TS-9 Junak 3 is a development version of the Junak 2 aircraft developed at the Institute in 1952. It was created in response to the need introduce a tricycle landing gear, since the Polish Air Force started to use fighter planes with landing gear of this type.^^ The new version was also equipped with a different propeller, a radio and an on-board telephone, a radio direction finder and a modified fuel system. The aircraft was flight-tested in 1953 by the Institute’s test pilots.^^ It was approved for full aerobatics. The aircraft was produced in two versions in 1954–1955. It was used in aero clubs from 1956 onwards. In 1954–1955, WSK-Okęcie produced 146 Junak 3’s. A large number of military and aero club pilots trained on them. The Junaks were in use until 1967. They were regarded as easy to fly, stable and manoeuvrable. They were very popular in their time, participating in various shows, events and competitions.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The first prototype of the TS-8 Bies training aircraft was flight-tested on 23 July 1955, during the initial phase of testing. The aircraft was designed by the design bureau of the Institute under the supervision of Tadeusz Sołtyk.
The first prototype of the TS-8 Bies training aircraft was flight-tested on 23 July 1955, during the initial phase of testing. The aircraft was designed by the design bureau of the Institute under the supervision of Tadeusz Sołtyk.

The TS-8 Bies was a training aircraft designed at the Institute that succeeded the Junak 3. The concept of the aircraft was related to the introduction of fighter jets in the 1950s. The wide range of cabin equipment could be used for basic training, aerobatics and navigation training as well as flying in zero visibility. ^^ It was the first aircraft with a metal semi-monocoque structure after the war, with a sound aerodynamic design. It was powered by a Polish-designed and manufactured radial piston engine. The design of the aircraft was made with particular emphasis on the technological aspects. Aerodynamic and endurance tests were carried out at the Institute. Flight-tested in 1955, it showed very good flight properties and performance.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The TS-8 Bies was a training aircraft designed at the Institute that succeeded the Junak 3. The concept of the aircraft was related to the introduction of fighter jets in the 1950s. The wide range of cabin equipment could be used for basic training, aerobatics and navigation training as well as flying in zero visibility. ^^ It was the first aircraft with a metal semi-monocoque structure after the war, with a sound aerodynamic design. It was powered by a Polish-designed and manufactured radial piston engine. The design of the aircraft was made with particular emphasis on the technological aspects. Aerodynamic and endurance tests were carried out at the Institute. Flight-tested in 1955, it showed very good flight properties and performance.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

SO-1 engine. The work on the first Polish jet engine, called the SO-1, with the thrust of 980 daN, started in 1956.
SO-1 engine. The work on the first Polish jet engine, called the SO-1, with the thrust of 980 daN, started in 1956.

At the same time as the design works on the TS-11 Iskra trainer aircraft were initiated, the Institute started working on the engine for that plane, according to the initial requirements presented by the Air Force with the requirements for the aircraft itself. It provided for an engine thrust of 9,81 kN, or 1000 kG in units used at that time. It was higher than in other aircraft used back then, since it was supposed to power a plane with a more equipment and armament, and allow for higher performance characteristics. The engine was to be equipped with an axial compressor and an annular combustion chamber, which means that it was supposed to have a small frontal area and a simple design. A seven-stage compressor with a compression ratio of 4.8 was adopted in order to avoid cumbersome mechanical systems and use a single-stage turbine. The annular combustion chamber with vaporisers was chosen because of the simplicity and durability of such a design and the uniform temperature distribution throughout the turbine. The designed temperature upstream of the turbine was 825 degrees Celsius to avoid the need for cooling. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

At the same time as the design works on the TS-11 Iskra trainer aircraft were initiated, the Institute started working on the engine for that plane, according to the initial requirements presented by the Air Force with the requirements for the aircraft itself. It provided for an engine thrust of 9,81 kN, or 1000 kG in units used at that time. It was higher than in other aircraft used back then, since it was supposed to power a plane with a more equipment and armament, and allow for higher performance characteristics. The engine was to be equipped with an axial compressor and an annular combustion chamber, which means that it was supposed to have a small frontal area and a simple design. A seven-stage compressor with a compression ratio of 4.8 was adopted in order to avoid cumbersome mechanical systems and use a single-stage turbine. The annular combustion chamber with vaporisers was chosen because of the simplicity and durability of such a design and the uniform temperature distribution throughout the turbine. The designed temperature upstream of the turbine was 825 degrees Celsius to avoid the need for cooling. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The second prototype of the TS-8 Bies taking off for the Paris Air Show in 1957. An additional fuel tank is fitted under the left wing to extend its range. Andrzej Abłamowicz, the test pilot, sitting in the first cockpit.
The second prototype of the TS-8 Bies taking off for the Paris Air Show in 1957. An additional fuel tank is fitted under the left wing to extend its range. Andrzej Abłamowicz, the test pilot, sitting in the first cockpit.

The TS-8 Bies was presented in 1957 at the Paris Air Show in 1957. The aircraft broke three international records in the C-Ic class: altitude, range and speed.^^ A total of 250 aircraft were produced, first at WSK-Okęcie and then at WSK-Mielec. The fixed propeller was replaced by a controllable pitch propeller. After the end of military service, the Bies aircraft were handed over to aero clubs, where the last ones served until 1987. In recent years, several aircraft have been refurbished and presented at air shows.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The TS-8 Bies was presented in 1957 at the Paris Air Show in 1957. The aircraft broke three international records in the C-Ic class: altitude, range and speed.^^ A total of 250 aircraft were produced, first at WSK-Okęcie and then at WSK-Mielec. The fixed propeller was replaced by a controllable pitch propeller. After the end of military service, the Bies aircraft were handed over to aero clubs, where the last ones served until 1987. In recent years, several aircraft have been refurbished and presented at air shows.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The experimental helicopter JK-1 Trzmiel powered by a ramjet engine, designed at the Institute. 1957.
The experimental helicopter JK-1 Trzmiel powered by a ramjet engine, designed at the Institute. 1957.

In the second half of the 1950s, two types of helicopters of Polish design were tested at the Flight Test Department. The first one was the BŻ-4 Żuk, created at the design bureau of Bronisław Żurakowski, and built at the Institute. The second helicopter tested at the Institute in that period was a small, single-seater experimental helicopter called JK-1 Trzmiel, with a rotor powered by two jet engines designed at the workshop of Stanisław Wójcicki. In the first stage of the ground trials on 21 June 1957, there was a tragic accident. One of the engines broke off causing imbalance of the rotor, causing a crash that destroyed the helicopter and killed the test pilot of the Institute, engineer Antoni Śmigiel. After this accident, ground tests (led by engineer Andrzej Rudiuk) were conducted with greater caution. They were discontinued in 1959 after it was calculated that the helicopter would be unsafe to land in autorotation.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

In the second half of the 1950s, two types of helicopters of Polish design were tested at the Flight Test Department. The first one was the BŻ-4 Żuk, created at the design bureau of Bronisław Żurakowski, and built at the Institute. The second helicopter tested at the Institute in that period was a small, single-seater experimental helicopter called JK-1 Trzmiel, with a rotor powered by two jet engines designed at the workshop of Stanisław Wójcicki. In the first stage of the ground trials on 21 June 1957, there was a tragic accident. One of the engines broke off causing imbalance of the rotor, causing a crash that destroyed the helicopter and killed the test pilot of the Institute, engineer Antoni Śmigiel. After this accident, ground tests (led by engineer Andrzej Rudiuk) were conducted with greater caution. They were discontinued in 1959 after it was calculated that the helicopter would be unsafe to land in autorotation.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The BŻ-4 Żuk utility helicopter, constructed under the supervision of Bronisław Żurakowski.
The BŻ-4 Żuk utility helicopter, constructed under the supervision of Bronisław Żurakowski.

The studies on new helicopters that conducted by Bronisław Żurakowski in 1952–53 led to the definition of requirements for a utility helicopter, the BŻ-4, and to the establishment of a helicopter design bureau at the Institute under his supervision. Prototypes were built at the Institute and ground tests were initiated. They were continued after the design bureau was moved to WSK-Okęcie. Difficulties with the power unit and the chassis delayed the ground tests and the helicopter was finally flight-tested in February 1959. However, at that time the production of the licenced SM-1 helicopters was started in Świdnik and the work on the BŻ-4 was discontinued.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The studies on new helicopters that conducted by Bronisław Żurakowski in 1952–53 led to the definition of requirements for a utility helicopter, the BŻ-4, and to the establishment of a helicopter design bureau at the Institute under his supervision. Prototypes were built at the Institute and ground tests were initiated. They were continued after the design bureau was moved to WSK-Okęcie. Difficulties with the power unit and the chassis delayed the ground tests and the helicopter was finally flight-tested in February 1959. However, at that time the production of the licenced SM-1 helicopters was started in Świdnik and the work on the BŻ-4 was discontinued.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Prototype of the PZL-101 Gawron agricultural aircraft. Type approval tests were carried out at the Institute in 1957.
Prototype of the PZL-101 Gawron agricultural aircraft. Type approval tests were carried out at the Institute in 1957.

In 1956, at WSK-Okęcie, with the growing interest in economic applications of aviation, the team under the direction of Stanisław Lassota designed a conversion of the PZL Yak-12M aircraft, which was produced at that time, into an agricultural aircraft with increased payload. This decision was made to speed up the design process and keep the costs low, since using the already tested parts would shorted the required tests. The modification included adding a slight slant to the wings, placing edge plates at their ends, moving the landing gear, reducing the weight of the equipment and installing a tank for the chemicals. This allowed an increase of the chemical payload from 320 kg to 550 kg for the new aircraft, designated PZL–101 Gawron.^^ The PZL–101 Gawron played a major role in the development of Polish agricultural aviation and the growth of Polish agricultural aviation services in Egypt and Sudan. The PZL-101 Gawron was recognised by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance as the recommended agricultural aircraft in socialist countries. The medical version served in the Polish medical aviation. The executive transport and aero club variants were used by the Aero Club of the People’s Republic of Poland. The Gawron was replaced by more a more modern agricultural aircraft design, the PZL-106 Kruk. The Gawron was not operated by the Polish Air Force.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In 1956, at WSK-Okęcie, with the growing interest in economic applications of aviation, the team under the direction of Stanisław Lassota designed a conversion of the PZL Yak-12M aircraft, which was produced at that time, into an agricultural aircraft with increased payload. This decision was made to speed up the design process and keep the costs low, since using the already tested parts would shorted the required tests. The modification included adding a slight slant to the wings, placing edge plates at their ends, moving the landing gear, reducing the weight of the equipment and installing a tank for the chemicals. This allowed an increase of the chemical payload from 320 kg to 550 kg for the new aircraft, designated PZL–101 Gawron.^^ The PZL–101 Gawron played a major role in the development of Polish agricultural aviation and the growth of Polish agricultural aviation services in Egypt and Sudan. The PZL-101 Gawron was recognised by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance as the recommended agricultural aircraft in socialist countries. The medical version served in the Polish medical aviation. The executive transport and aero club variants were used by the Aero Club of the People’s Republic of Poland. The Gawron was replaced by more a more modern agricultural aircraft design, the PZL-106 Kruk. The Gawron was not operated by the Polish Air Force.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Static test of the Lim-5PF (interceptor version) conducted at the Institute in 1958.
Static test of the Lim-5PF (interceptor version) conducted at the Institute in 1958.

In the 1950s, aircraft assembly plants started mass production of the MiG fighter aircraft under licence. A wide range of flight and endurance tests of materials, components and complete aircraft were carried out at the Institute.^^ The static test of the Lim-5PF carried out at the Endurance Department showed correct deformation up to 105% of the maximum designed breaking load.^^ For many years, static airframe testing was the key focus area for the Department. It was a highly advanced area of operations, the only one of its kind in Poland for a very long time, connected wit the work of design bureaus and mass production.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009; “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

In the 1950s, aircraft assembly plants started mass production of the MiG fighter aircraft under licence. A wide range of flight and endurance tests of materials, components and complete aircraft were carried out at the Institute.^^ The static test of the Lim-5PF carried out at the Endurance Department showed correct deformation up to 105% of the maximum designed breaking load.^^ For many years, static airframe testing was the key focus area for the Department. It was a highly advanced area of operations, the only one of its kind in Poland for a very long time, connected wit the work of design bureaus and mass production.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009; “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

Tests of the MD-12 aircraft in a wind tunnel. 1958.
Tests of the MD-12 aircraft in a wind tunnel. 1958.

In 1954, two designs of passenger and cargo aircraft called the FM-11 and FM-12 were developed at the Institute of Aviation by the team led by Franciszek Misztal. In 1956, after Leszek Dulęba joined the team, a new design of a 14-seat aircraft was created, called the MD-12, which was based on the FM-12 concept and the expertise gained in the tests of the CSS-12 prototype. It was intended as an economical passenger aircraft for domestic airlines.^^ The MD-12 was designed mainly for domestic passenger, cargo and mixed passenger and cargo flights. It was also possible to modify the design for medical transport, aerial surveying and various utility roles, such as aerial application of treatments in forestry and farming. After the tests, the aircraft showed very good flight characteristics. It could use unpaved airfields and was notable for short take-offs and landings. It was also more economical than other aircraft used by the LOT Polish Airlines.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In 1954, two designs of passenger and cargo aircraft called the FM-11 and FM-12 were developed at the Institute of Aviation by the team led by Franciszek Misztal. In 1956, after Leszek Dulęba joined the team, a new design of a 14-seat aircraft was created, called the MD-12, which was based on the FM-12 concept and the expertise gained in the tests of the CSS-12 prototype. It was intended as an economical passenger aircraft for domestic airlines.^^ The MD-12 was designed mainly for domestic passenger, cargo and mixed passenger and cargo flights. It was also possible to modify the design for medical transport, aerial surveying and various utility roles, such as aerial application of treatments in forestry and farming. After the tests, the aircraft showed very good flight characteristics. It could use unpaved airfields and was notable for short take-offs and landings. It was also more economical than other aircraft used by the LOT Polish Airlines.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Prototype of the PZL-102 Kos tested at the Institute. 1957.
Prototype of the PZL-102 Kos tested at the Institute. 1957.

As a result of an analysis of the needs of the foreign and domestic aviation market carried out in the spring of 1957 at WSK-Okęcie, a decision was made to build a light, low-cost, metal sports aircraft with a low-power engine. Stanislaw Lassota became the principal designer of the aircraft. The preliminary design was created from March to September 1957. In September, the entire design bureau started working on the design of the PZL-102 Kos. The design works were conducted under the supervision of Stanisław Lassota, Janusz Drozdowski and Ryszard Orłowski. In December 1957, the first design elements were made at the workshop. The aircraft was ready and at the end of May 1957. A prototype of the PZL.102 Kos with PZL WN-1 (PZL-65) engine was flight-tested on 21 May 1958. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

As a result of an analysis of the needs of the foreign and domestic aviation market carried out in the spring of 1957 at WSK-Okęcie, a decision was made to build a light, low-cost, metal sports aircraft with a low-power engine. Stanislaw Lassota became the principal designer of the aircraft. The preliminary design was created from March to September 1957. In September, the entire design bureau started working on the design of the PZL-102 Kos. The design works were conducted under the supervision of Stanisław Lassota, Janusz Drozdowski and Ryszard Orłowski. In December 1957, the first design elements were made at the workshop. The aircraft was ready and at the end of May 1957. A prototype of the PZL.102 Kos with PZL WN-1 (PZL-65) engine was flight-tested on 21 May 1958. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

A Yak-12M SP-GLN after flight tests, used as an executive transport aircraft by the Institute. The picture was taken in 1959.
A Yak-12M SP-GLN after flight tests, used as an executive transport aircraft by the Institute. The picture was taken in 1959.

In 1955, Poland purchased the license for the design of the Yak-12M. The development of mass production documentation was entrusted to the design bureau of WSK-4 Okęcie. The Polish version of design documentation was prepared by a team of employees of the Chief Designer Department under the supervision of Stanislaw Lassota. The works were completed in 1956. In the same year, the aircraft was put into mass-produced production at WSK-4. Twenty Yak-12M’s were produced in 1956. It wasn’t until 1957 that larger series of the liaison and passenger, training, and medical versions were made. These machines entered into service with the Air Force in 1956. Apart from the military, the Yak-12M’s were used by aero clubs for training pilots and towing gliders. The AI-14R engines were also manufactured in Poland, with mass production started in 1956 at WSK-Kalisz. The first Polish civilian Yak-12M in a medical configuration, produced at WSK-4 Okęcie, was registered on 28 December 1956 (SP-CXA). The second civilian Yak-12M produced at WSK-4 Okęcie, in a passenger and liaison version, was registered on 2 February 1957, with the registration code SP-CAA. The third Yak-12M, in the same version, was registered on 8 June 1957 as SP-CAB. In 1959, one of the mass-produced aircraft with the designation SP-GLN was donated to the Institute of Aviation. It had a machine gun opening in the upper fuselage.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In 1955, Poland purchased the license for the design of the Yak-12M. The development of mass production documentation was entrusted to the design bureau of WSK-4 Okęcie. The Polish version of design documentation was prepared by a team of employees of the Chief Designer Department under the supervision of Stanislaw Lassota. The works were completed in 1956. In the same year, the aircraft was put into mass-produced production at WSK-4. Twenty Yak-12M’s were produced in 1956. It wasn’t until 1957 that larger series of the liaison and passenger, training, and medical versions were made. These machines entered into service with the Air Force in 1956. Apart from the military, the Yak-12M’s were used by aero clubs for training pilots and towing gliders. The AI-14R engines were also manufactured in Poland, with mass production started in 1956 at WSK-Kalisz. The first Polish civilian Yak-12M in a medical configuration, produced at WSK-4 Okęcie, was registered on 28 December 1956 (SP-CXA). The second civilian Yak-12M produced at WSK-4 Okęcie, in a passenger and liaison version, was registered on 2 February 1957, with the registration code SP-CAA. The third Yak-12M, in the same version, was registered on 8 June 1957 as SP-CAB. In 1959, one of the mass-produced aircraft with the designation SP-GLN was donated to the Institute of Aviation. It had a machine gun opening in the upper fuselage.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The M-2, tested at the Institute in 1960.
The M-2, tested at the Institute in 1960.

In the Aviation Design Centre at WSK-Mielec, a design of a training aircraft for aero clubs was created under the direction of engineer Stanisław Jachyra, with the designation PZL M2. The preliminary design of this aircraft was created in 1956, with the construction design developed in 1957. The aircraft was built in the winter of 1957/1958. It spent the following month awaiting for the engine and wheels ordered in Czechoslovakia. The first prototype was flight-tested on 26 June 1958, and the second one on 13 September 1958. Factory tests were carried out between 26 June and 18 November 1958. As a result of the tests, several structural changes were made to the second prototype. In September 1958, the first prototype was presented at the Air Show in Warsaw at Plac Zwycięstwa, and the second prototype was shown at the Air Show in Wrocław in September 1959. From 12 February to 14 October 1960, the aircraft underwent official tests at the Institute of Aviation. The tests showed relatively good flight characteristics.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In the Aviation Design Centre at WSK-Mielec, a design of a training aircraft for aero clubs was created under the direction of engineer Stanisław Jachyra, with the designation PZL M2. The preliminary design of this aircraft was created in 1956, with the construction design developed in 1957. The aircraft was built in the winter of 1957/1958. It spent the following month awaiting for the engine and wheels ordered in Czechoslovakia. The first prototype was flight-tested on 26 June 1958, and the second one on 13 September 1958. Factory tests were carried out between 26 June and 18 November 1958. As a result of the tests, several structural changes were made to the second prototype. In September 1958, the first prototype was presented at the Air Show in Warsaw at Plac Zwycięstwa, and the second prototype was shown at the Air Show in Wrocław in September 1959. From 12 February to 14 October 1960, the aircraft underwent official tests at the Institute of Aviation. The tests showed relatively good flight characteristics.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The SM-1 helicopter donated to the Institute for research in 1957, and subsequently used at the Institute for various tests and executive transport flights. Pictured here during studies on the effect of additional wings. 1971.
The SM-1 helicopter donated to the Institute for research in 1957, and subsequently used at the Institute for various tests and executive transport flights. Pictured here during studies on the effect of additional wings. 1971.

In mid-1950s, WSK-Świdnik started production of licenced Soviet Mi-1 helicopters designated SM-1. This type of helicopter, registered as SP-SPAD, was donated to the Institute, where it was used for developing flight test methodology and various other research purposes. The problems investigated with this helicopter included the so called vortex ring (at vertical descent of the helicopter), landing in rough terrain, and towing gliders. The experimental wings, designed by Stanislaw Wielgus with the aid of the computational engineer Jerzy Lamparski, were mounted on the helicopter and subsequent measurement flights were carried out to assess their effect on the energy balance with regard to that structural system, mainly the effect of the wings on the helicopter’s manoeuvrability. The Flight Test Department also conducted tests of the following versions of the SM-1 helicopter: SM-1S, SM-1W and the Polish version SM-2 with enlarged, five-seat cabin. SP-SPAD was also used for liaison purposes and, after it was removed from service, it was donated to the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków. It was replaced by another WSK-Świdnik product, Mi-2 helicopter with registration code SP-PSC, which was previously presented at the Paris Air Show. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

In mid-1950s, WSK-Świdnik started production of licenced Soviet Mi-1 helicopters designated SM-1. This type of helicopter, registered as SP-SPAD, was donated to the Institute, where it was used for developing flight test methodology and various other research purposes. The problems investigated with this helicopter included the so called vortex ring (at vertical descent of the helicopter), landing in rough terrain, and towing gliders. The experimental wings, designed by Stanislaw Wielgus with the aid of the computational engineer Jerzy Lamparski, were mounted on the helicopter and subsequent measurement flights were carried out to assess their effect on the energy balance with regard to that structural system, mainly the effect of the wings on the helicopter’s manoeuvrability. The Flight Test Department also conducted tests of the following versions of the SM-1 helicopter: SM-1S, SM-1W and the Polish version SM-2 with enlarged, five-seat cabin. SP-SPAD was also used for liaison purposes and, after it was removed from service, it was donated to the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków. It was replaced by another WSK-Świdnik product, Mi-2 helicopter with registration code SP-PSC, which was previously presented at the Paris Air Show. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The SM-2 helicopter tested at the Institute.
The SM-2 helicopter tested at the Institute.

The SM-2 helicopters were mainly used for liaison and medical purposes. They were also used for special operations, such as dropping explosives on ice blockages on the Vistula River in March 1963. A crane version of the SM-2 was used by the navy, the Border Protection Troops and units controlled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. These machines were used in many rescue operations, taking survivors from drifting wrecks and life rafts, people in need of help in mountain rescue operations, etc. Also, patrol SM-2’s owned by the Ministry of Interior units were used in operations related to criminal activity on numerous occasions.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The SM-2 helicopters were mainly used for liaison and medical purposes. They were also used for special operations, such as dropping explosives on ice blockages on the Vistula River in March 1963. A crane version of the SM-2 was used by the navy, the Border Protection Troops and units controlled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. These machines were used in many rescue operations, taking survivors from drifting wrecks and life rafts, people in need of help in mountain rescue operations, etc. Also, patrol SM-2’s owned by the Ministry of Interior units were used in operations related to criminal activity on numerous occasions.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The second prototype of the MD-12 passenger aircraft. In 1961, factory tests, type approval and the trial operation of this aircraft (including Warsaw-Rzeszów flights of the LOT Polish Airlines) were carried out by the Institute.
The second prototype of the MD-12 passenger aircraft. In 1961, factory tests, type approval and the trial operation of this aircraft (including Warsaw-Rzeszów flights of the LOT Polish Airlines) were carried out by the Institute.

In 1954, two designs of passenger and cargo aircraft called the FM-11 and FM-12 were developed at the Institute of Aviation by the team led by Franciszek Misztal. In 1956, after Leszek Dulęba joined the team, a new design of a 14-seat aircraft was created, called the MD-12, which was based on the FM-12 concept and the expertise gained in the tests of the CSS-12 prototype. It was intended as an economical passenger aircraft for domestic airlines.^^ On 7 January 1961, the second prototype, MD-12P, was flight-tested with a fully equipped passenger cabin, powered by the WN-3C engines. In the first half of 1961, the machine underwent shortened official tests at the Institute of Aviation. In August 1961, it was put into trial operation at the LOT Polish Airlines. The MD-12P made 120 passenger flights within 5 weeks. The MD-12 was designed mainly for domestic passenger, cargo and mixed passenger and cargo flights. It was also possible to modify the design for medical transport, aerial surveying and various utility roles, such as aerial application of treatments in forestry and farming. After the tests, the aircraft showed very good flight characteristics. It could use unpaved airfields and was notable for short take-offs and landings. It was more economical than other aircraft used by the LOT Polish Airlines.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In 1954, two designs of passenger and cargo aircraft called the FM-11 and FM-12 were developed at the Institute of Aviation by the team led by Franciszek Misztal. In 1956, after Leszek Dulęba joined the team, a new design of a 14-seat aircraft was created, called the MD-12, which was based on the FM-12 concept and the expertise gained in the tests of the CSS-12 prototype. It was intended as an economical passenger aircraft for domestic airlines.^^ On 7 January 1961, the second prototype, MD-12P, was flight-tested with a fully equipped passenger cabin, powered by the WN-3C engines. In the first half of 1961, the machine underwent shortened official tests at the Institute of Aviation. In August 1961, it was put into trial operation at the LOT Polish Airlines. The MD-12P made 120 passenger flights within 5 weeks. The MD-12 was designed mainly for domestic passenger, cargo and mixed passenger and cargo flights. It was also possible to modify the design for medical transport, aerial surveying and various utility roles, such as aerial application of treatments in forestry and farming. After the tests, the aircraft showed very good flight characteristics. It could use unpaved airfields and was notable for short take-offs and landings. It was more economical than other aircraft used by the LOT Polish Airlines.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The Yak-17 aircraft was used at the Institute to train the Institute’s test pilots in the late 1950s.
The Yak-17 aircraft was used at the Institute to train the Institute’s test pilots in the late 1950s.

In early 1957, the military authorities transferred two Yak-17Ws to the Institute of Aviation. Only one of them was used as a civilian aircraft, with the registration code SP-GLM. After an overhaul, it was flight-tested on 8 September 1958. The second aircraft was disassembled for parts. The SP-GLM was used at the Institute of Aviation for training and practice of the Institute’s test pilots, whose next task would be to flight-test the first Polish jet aircraft, the TS-11 Iskra. From November 1959 to February 1960, flight characteristics evaluation was also carried out, mainly regarding the stability and manoeuvrability, and performance was tested, such as flight duration. The last flight was made on 3 February 1960. In October 1964, the aircraft was donated to the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

In early 1957, the military authorities transferred two Yak-17Ws to the Institute of Aviation. Only one of them was used as a civilian aircraft, with the registration code SP-GLM. After an overhaul, it was flight-tested on 8 September 1958. The second aircraft was disassembled for parts. The SP-GLM was used at the Institute of Aviation for training and practice of the Institute’s test pilots, whose next task would be to flight-test the first Polish jet aircraft, the TS-11 Iskra. From November 1959 to February 1960, flight characteristics evaluation was also carried out, mainly regarding the stability and manoeuvrability, and performance was tested, such as flight duration. The last flight was made on 3 February 1960. In October 1964, the aircraft was donated to the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The first prototype (for flight tests) of the TS-11 Iskra was flown for the first time by test pilot Andrzej Abłamowicz in February 1960.
The first prototype (for flight tests) of the TS-11 Iskra was flown for the first time by test pilot Andrzej Abłamowicz in February 1960.

The need to train jet pilots created a demand for a modern training aircraft. Tadeusz Sołtyk and his team of designers began work on the aircraft in 1957. The first prototype was flight-tested by test pilot Andrzej Abłamowicz on 5 February 1960. From 1963, the TS-11 Iskra was mass-produced at WSK-Mielec.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The need to train jet pilots created a demand for a modern training aircraft. Tadeusz Sołtyk and his team of designers began work on the aircraft in 1957. The first prototype was flight-tested by test pilot Andrzej Abłamowicz on 5 February 1960. From 1963, the TS-11 Iskra was mass-produced at WSK-Mielec.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The second prototype of the TS-11 Iskra, intended for flight tests at the Institute.
The second prototype of the TS-11 Iskra, intended for flight tests at the Institute.

The aircraft was designed at OKL WSK Okęcie, where Tadeusz Sołtyk’s bureau was moved from the Institute. The Institute carried out tests, including aerodynamic, functional, endurance and flight tests. Also, the SO-1 engine was designed at the same time as the aircraft. The first TS-11 Iskra with the final SO-1 engine was flight-tested in April 1964.^^ The TS-11 Iskra, the first entirely Polish jet aircraft, had very good flying characteristics and performance. It set four international records in the C-Id class of aircraft, breaking four international records in the C-Id class. It had an original silhouette, good cabin visibility and many innovative technical solutions. Its ground handling was easy to perform. There were 2 ejection seats in the pressurised cabin for the instructor and the student. It was armed with a 23 mm rapid-fire cannon and a gun camera built into the front of the fuselage, and four armament hardpoints under the wings. Approved for full aerobatics, it was also used for training in group flying, air route flying, dogfighting, bombing and close air support. Its wide range of equipment allowed flying by reference to instruments in low visibility due to difficult weather conditions. It was by the Air Force since 1964 for a very long time with great success. Additionally, 50 TS-11’s were in service with the Indian Air Force from 1974 to 2001. About 450 were produced. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The aircraft was designed at OKL WSK Okęcie, where Tadeusz Sołtyk’s bureau was moved from the Institute. The Institute carried out tests, including aerodynamic, functional, endurance and flight tests. Also, the SO-1 engine was designed at the same time as the aircraft. The first TS-11 Iskra with the final SO-1 engine was flight-tested in April 1964.^^ The TS-11 Iskra, the first entirely Polish jet aircraft, had very good flying characteristics and performance. It set four international records in the C-Id class of aircraft, breaking four international records in the C-Id class. It had an original silhouette, good cabin visibility and many innovative technical solutions. Its ground handling was easy to perform. There were 2 ejection seats in the pressurised cabin for the instructor and the student. It was armed with a 23 mm rapid-fire cannon and a gun camera built into the front of the fuselage, and four armament hardpoints under the wings. Approved for full aerobatics, it was also used for training in group flying, air route flying, dogfighting, bombing and close air support. Its wide range of equipment allowed flying by reference to instruments in low visibility due to difficult weather conditions. It was by the Air Force since 1964 for a very long time with great success. Additionally, 50 TS-11’s were in service with the Indian Air Force from 1974 to 2001. About 450 were produced. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Tadeusz Sołtyk – wizjoner i konstruktor polskich samolotów,” Institute of Aviation Publishing House, Warsaw 2009.

The flying engine test bed – IL-28 – during ground tests of the SO-1 engine prior to flight tests. 1963.
The flying engine test bed – IL-28 – during ground tests of the SO-1 engine prior to flight tests. 1963.

The Institute developed a two-stage system called the flying engine test bed for flight testing of supersonic jet engines – LH. The first stage of the flying engine test bed was a solid fuel launch rocket engine, and the second stage was a supersonic ramjet. The purpose of the flying engine test bed was to assess the feasibility of building a surface-to-air missile.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The Institute developed a two-stage system called the flying engine test bed for flight testing of supersonic jet engines – LH. The first stage of the flying engine test bed was a solid fuel launch rocket engine, and the second stage was a supersonic ramjet. The purpose of the flying engine test bed was to assess the feasibility of building a surface-to-air missile.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The mass produced Meteor-1 sounding rocket, with a ceiling of 37,000 m (224 built). Developed at the Institute.
The mass produced Meteor-1 sounding rocket, with a ceiling of 37,000 m (224 built). Developed at the Institute.

In 1962, the Polish National Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (PIHM) commissioned the Institute to the design the first Polish sounding rocket, including the research and production of a specific number of rockets. The contract for the prototype series of the rocket was signed by the end of that year. The rocket was given the name Meteor-1. ^^ The Meteor-1 rocket consisted of a first stage rocket engine with an average thrust of 1400 daN and a second stage warhead in the shape of an arrowhead, separate from the engine. The housing of the engine with an external diameter of 120 mm was made of steel plate.^^ Acceptance tests carried out jointly by the Institute and Rocket and Satellite Research Department of the PIHM demonstrated that the Meteor-1 sounding rocket satisfied the technical requirements, was easy and safe to use and could be successfully deployed to measure winds in the upper layers of atmosphere. Mass production of Meteor-1 sounding rockets began and a total of 224 were produced, of which 177 were used for sounding, and 5 were exported to the German Democratic Republic. The first launch took place on 18 December 1963, with the last ones completed in 1971.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

In 1962, the Polish National Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (PIHM) commissioned the Institute to the design the first Polish sounding rocket, including the research and production of a specific number of rockets. The contract for the prototype series of the rocket was signed by the end of that year. The rocket was given the name Meteor-1. ^^ The Meteor-1 rocket consisted of a first stage rocket engine with an average thrust of 1400 daN and a second stage warhead in the shape of an arrowhead, separate from the engine. The housing of the engine with an external diameter of 120 mm was made of steel plate.^^ Acceptance tests carried out jointly by the Institute and Rocket and Satellite Research Department of the PIHM demonstrated that the Meteor-1 sounding rocket satisfied the technical requirements, was easy and safe to use and could be successfully deployed to measure winds in the upper layers of atmosphere. Mass production of Meteor-1 sounding rockets began and a total of 224 were produced, of which 177 were used for sounding, and 5 were exported to the German Democratic Republic. The first launch took place on 18 December 1963, with the last ones completed in 1971.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The Meteor-2K sounding rocket with two additional boosters reached an altitude of 90,000 m. It was designed at the Institute.
The Meteor-2K sounding rocket with two additional boosters reached an altitude of 90,000 m. It was designed at the Institute.

In 1964, the National Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (PIHM) commissioned the Institute to design a rocket designated as Meteor-2. The contract for the development and testing of the Meteor-2 rocket was signed in late 1965. According to the requirements, the rocket was intended to carry sounding instruments to an altitude of 60,000 m. The designed maximum payload was to be 10 kg, with a volume of 12.5 dm3. The guidelines stated that after reaching the ceiling and ejecting the instruments the rocket would fall down on a parachute. This condition was dictated by safety considerations. Different versions of the rocket the Meteor-2H and Meteor-2K, were being developed at the same time.^^ Between March 1968 and October 1970, there were 10 tests of the Meteor-2H rocket. Testes 1–8 were prototypical tests, while the last two, on 7 October 1970, were performed as acceptance tests. Initially, 16 field trials of the rocket were anticipated, but this number was later reduced to 10 because to cut costs. This adjustment was also influenced by the decision of the PIHM to cancel the Meteor-2 project due to high operating costs. The biggest concern for the designers was the failure to reach the intended ceiling of 60 kilometres and the significant effect of wind on the flight path of the rocket, which limited its operational performance.^^ This problem was solved in the Meteor-2K version. With a higher launch speed, the sensitivity of the rocket to the wind decreased, and the ceiling increased to 90 km. The first successful test of the Meteor-2K rocket with boosters took place on July 10, 1970. On October 7, two further launches were successfully carried out, during which the PIHM was familiarised with the operation and took over the entire Meteor-2 system. Unfortunately, mass production of the Meteor-2K rocket was not started due to the aforesaid decision of the PIHM management. At the time, the Meteor-2K rocket was the largest and the most technologically advanced Polish sounding rocket. Three types of research programmes and altitude experiments were developed for it under the PIHM commission.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

In 1964, the National Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (PIHM) commissioned the Institute to design a rocket designated as Meteor-2. The contract for the development and testing of the Meteor-2 rocket was signed in late 1965. According to the requirements, the rocket was intended to carry sounding instruments to an altitude of 60,000 m. The designed maximum payload was to be 10 kg, with a volume of 12.5 dm3. The guidelines stated that after reaching the ceiling and ejecting the instruments the rocket would fall down on a parachute. This condition was dictated by safety considerations. Different versions of the rocket the Meteor-2H and Meteor-2K, were being developed at the same time.^^ Between March 1968 and October 1970, there were 10 tests of the Meteor-2H rocket. Testes 1–8 were prototypical tests, while the last two, on 7 October 1970, were performed as acceptance tests. Initially, 16 field trials of the rocket were anticipated, but this number was later reduced to 10 because to cut costs. This adjustment was also influenced by the decision of the PIHM to cancel the Meteor-2 project due to high operating costs. The biggest concern for the designers was the failure to reach the intended ceiling of 60 kilometres and the significant effect of wind on the flight path of the rocket, which limited its operational performance.^^ This problem was solved in the Meteor-2K version. With a higher launch speed, the sensitivity of the rocket to the wind decreased, and the ceiling increased to 90 km. The first successful test of the Meteor-2K rocket with boosters took place on July 10, 1970. On October 7, two further launches were successfully carried out, during which the PIHM was familiarised with the operation and took over the entire Meteor-2 system. Unfortunately, mass production of the Meteor-2K rocket was not started due to the aforesaid decision of the PIHM management. At the time, the Meteor-2K rocket was the largest and the most technologically advanced Polish sounding rocket. Three types of research programmes and altitude experiments were developed for it under the PIHM commission.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The Meteor-3 sounding rocket, produced in a short series, allowed measurements of wind profiles at altitudes of 55,000–65,000 m. It was developed at the Institute.
The Meteor-3 sounding rocket, produced in a short series, allowed measurements of wind profiles at altitudes of 55,000–65,000 m. It was developed at the Institute.

While the Meteor-2 rocket was still in the works, the PIHM commissioned the Institute to design a new rocket with a similar function to the Meteor-1, with a ceiling of 55,000–65,000 m. On 22 October 1966, the PIHM issued a formal order for the design of a modified Meteor-1 rocket, designated as Meteor-3. ^^ A three-stage design, which was the most suitable and had the shortest lead time, was selected for the project. The rocket consisted of two modified Meteor-1 engines with a thrust of 2 x 1372 daN, connected in series with the third stage – an unpowered tip. The individual stages and the tip were pyrotechnically separated after the lower stage fuel had burned out. ^^ In October 1968, the first three rockets were launched from the base in Łeba. In the autumn of 1969, flight tests of four new rockets were carried out based on the documentation for the prototype series. These tests confirmed that the rocket’s performance was consistent with the requirements. For the first time in Poland, measurements of the wind above the stratosphere were made. ^^ In 1970–1971, 14 rockets were launched and the production of Meteors was discontinued. In June 1974, the last three Meteor-3 rockets were launched from the Rocket Base in Łeba, ending the 9-year period of the upper atmosphere soundings conducted by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

While the Meteor-2 rocket was still in the works, the PIHM commissioned the Institute to design a new rocket with a similar function to the Meteor-1, with a ceiling of 55,000–65,000 m. On 22 October 1966, the PIHM issued a formal order for the design of a modified Meteor-1 rocket, designated as Meteor-3. ^^ A three-stage design, which was the most suitable and had the shortest lead time, was selected for the project. The rocket consisted of two modified Meteor-1 engines with a thrust of 2 x 1372 daN, connected in series with the third stage – an unpowered tip. The individual stages and the tip were pyrotechnically separated after the lower stage fuel had burned out. ^^ In October 1968, the first three rockets were launched from the base in Łeba. In the autumn of 1969, flight tests of four new rockets were carried out based on the documentation for the prototype series. These tests confirmed that the rocket’s performance was consistent with the requirements. For the first time in Poland, measurements of the wind above the stratosphere were made. ^^ In 1970–1971, 14 rockets were launched and the production of Meteors was discontinued. In June 1974, the last three Meteor-3 rockets were launched from the Rocket Base in Łeba, ending the 9-year period of the upper atmosphere soundings conducted by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

IRS-type radio spectrometer in a hyperbaric chamber. The Institute began performing space research in 1969, designing and manufacturing electronic satellite equipment.
IRS-type radio spectrometer in a hyperbaric chamber. The Institute began performing space research in 1969, designing and manufacturing electronic satellite equipment.

The first major scientific success of the Institute in this regard was the launch of the RS-500K satellite radio spectrometer on 19 April 1973 as part of the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Nicolaus Copernicus. On board the Intercosmos 9, the Kopernik 500 IRS Radio Spectrometer was used to study the radiation of the sun. ^^ Photo and text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

The first major scientific success of the Institute in this regard was the launch of the RS-500K satellite radio spectrometer on 19 April 1973 as part of the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Nicolaus Copernicus. On board the Intercosmos 9, the Kopernik 500 IRS Radio Spectrometer was used to study the radiation of the sun. ^^ Photo and text source: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.

A dummy of the PZL-106 Kruk aircraft, designed at the Institute in 1970 and 1971.
A dummy of the PZL-106 Kruk aircraft, designed at the Institute in 1970 and 1971.

In 1970, a small agricultural aircraft called PZL-106 was designed at the Institute. It was a community initiative of the Association of Polish Mechanical Engineers (SIMP) Club, which was active at the Institute. A mock-up of this aircraft was also built by volunteers. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

In 1970, a small agricultural aircraft called PZL-106 was designed at the Institute. It was a community initiative of the Association of Polish Mechanical Engineers (SIMP) Club, which was active at the Institute. A mock-up of this aircraft was also built by volunteers. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Preparation for the M-15 programme – the Lala-1 experimental aircraft. Study of the effect of a jet engine on the discharge of chemicals with the use of pneumatic transport.
Preparation for the M-15 programme – the Lala-1 experimental aircraft. Study of the effect of a jet engine on the discharge of chemicals with the use of pneumatic transport.

The development of the M-15 aircraft and its agricultural equipment was preceded by the design of a flying laboratory at the Institute, on which the preliminary studies of turbine propulsion and pneumatic transport of chemicals were to be carried out. After many discussions among the Institute’s specialists, it was agreed that the best way to meet the requirements of pneumatic transport was a with a flying laboratory, as it enables complex tests in the actual operating conditions of agricultural aircraft. It also turned out that the laboratory could be constructed in a short time, using the mass-produced An-2R agricultural aircraft, with the AI-25 jet engine installed, its start-up systems, air intake system, fuel and fire protection installation. The rear part of the fuselage of the An-2R was completely rebuilt to enable the discharge of gases in the jet engine nozzle. It was necessary to raise the horizontal tailplane and use a double vertical tail, redesign and move the rear landing gear, and reconfigure the crew cabin entrance. The entire biplane wing bay design and the connected part of the fuselage, the main landing gear and the aircraft crew cockpit with equipment and control elements were unchanged. The existing power unit – the Ash-62IR piston engine with the AW-2 propeller – was also kept. In this way the twin-engine, piston-turbine experimental aircraft Lala-1 (Flying Laboratory-1), was created. The Flying Laboratory was used to carry out a wide range of tests, whose findings were used in the design of the M-15 aircraft and its agricultural equipment. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The development of the M-15 aircraft and its agricultural equipment was preceded by the design of a flying laboratory at the Institute, on which the preliminary studies of turbine propulsion and pneumatic transport of chemicals were to be carried out. After many discussions among the Institute’s specialists, it was agreed that the best way to meet the requirements of pneumatic transport was a with a flying laboratory, as it enables complex tests in the actual operating conditions of agricultural aircraft. It also turned out that the laboratory could be constructed in a short time, using the mass-produced An-2R agricultural aircraft, with the AI-25 jet engine installed, its start-up systems, air intake system, fuel and fire protection installation. The rear part of the fuselage of the An-2R was completely rebuilt to enable the discharge of gases in the jet engine nozzle. It was necessary to raise the horizontal tailplane and use a double vertical tail, redesign and move the rear landing gear, and reconfigure the crew cabin entrance. The entire biplane wing bay design and the connected part of the fuselage, the main landing gear and the aircraft crew cockpit with equipment and control elements were unchanged. The existing power unit – the Ash-62IR piston engine with the AW-2 propeller – was also kept. In this way the twin-engine, piston-turbine experimental aircraft Lala-1 (Flying Laboratory-1), was created. The Flying Laboratory was used to carry out a wide range of tests, whose findings were used in the design of the M-15 aircraft and its agricultural equipment. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft tested at the Institute in 1977.
The M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft tested at the Institute in 1977.

In mid 1970s, the Institute joined the works on the M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft designed in Mielec. The Dromader was developed without any publicity, in the shadow of the M-15 and in cooperation with the American company Rockwell International, with which an agreement was signed in February 1975. The company was a manufacturer of such aircraft as S-2R Trush, aircraft with a small chemical payload. The cabin, rear fuselage and wing sections of this aircraft were used in the design of the M-18, whose prototype was flight-tested in August 1976 at an airport near Rzeszów. The M-18 Dromader, powered by the Ash-62IR piston engine, had a low-wing design with the cockpit located behind the engine and a 2500 dm3 chemical tank. The chemical payload was 2200 kg. Aerodynamic tests of the aircraft, dynamic tests of its landing gear and resonance tests of the aircraft were carried out at the Institute. Cooperation with Rockwell International opened possibilities of export of Polish agricultural aircraft to the western markets, which soon followed. So far, over 750 M-18 aircraft have been manufactured, most of them – about 90% – for export. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

In mid 1970s, the Institute joined the works on the M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft designed in Mielec. The Dromader was developed without any publicity, in the shadow of the M-15 and in cooperation with the American company Rockwell International, with which an agreement was signed in February 1975. The company was a manufacturer of such aircraft as S-2R Trush, aircraft with a small chemical payload. The cabin, rear fuselage and wing sections of this aircraft were used in the design of the M-18, whose prototype was flight-tested in August 1976 at an airport near Rzeszów. The M-18 Dromader, powered by the Ash-62IR piston engine, had a low-wing design with the cockpit located behind the engine and a 2500 dm3 chemical tank. The chemical payload was 2200 kg. Aerodynamic tests of the aircraft, dynamic tests of its landing gear and resonance tests of the aircraft were carried out at the Institute. Cooperation with Rockwell International opened possibilities of export of Polish agricultural aircraft to the western markets, which soon followed. So far, over 750 M-18 aircraft have been manufactured, most of them – about 90% – for export. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Tests on agricultural crop spraying equipment on the Mi-2 helicopter. 1974.
Tests on agricultural crop spraying equipment on the Mi-2 helicopter. 1974.

The Institute participated in both licensing and Polish helicopter design works. Many tests of elements and systems, such as landing gears, were carried out for the Mi-2 helicopter. ^^ The helicopter was used to test agricultural equipment and smoke generators, to perform landing tests in sloping stable and rolling terrain (simulating turnover), to conduct helicopter power unit failure tests during take-off (for one and both engines), also in vertical ascent. The technique of manoeuvring after a power unit failure was developed, as well as the methods of flying close to the ground (hedgehopping) near ground obstacles in agricultural and military operations (these studies were conducted by Kazimierz Szumański, with the participation of test pilots). ^^ For the Mi-2Ch (chemical version), intended for military use, the Institute developed a smoke gas generator (WDZ-80). The principle of the gas generator is to use the heat of the helicopter's engine exhaust gases to vaporise the smoke agent (diesel) during flight. Under favourable weather conditions, it provides a smoke screen with a length of 2000 m, a width of 25–30 m and a height of 10 m in 15 minutes. The Mi-2Ch helicopters were used by the Land Forces and the Navy. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The Institute participated in both licensing and Polish helicopter design works. Many tests of elements and systems, such as landing gears, were carried out for the Mi-2 helicopter. ^^ The helicopter was used to test agricultural equipment and smoke generators, to perform landing tests in sloping stable and rolling terrain (simulating turnover), to conduct helicopter power unit failure tests during take-off (for one and both engines), also in vertical ascent. The technique of manoeuvring after a power unit failure was developed, as well as the methods of flying close to the ground (hedgehopping) near ground obstacles in agricultural and military operations (these studies were conducted by Kazimierz Szumański, with the participation of test pilots). ^^ For the Mi-2Ch (chemical version), intended for military use, the Institute developed a smoke gas generator (WDZ-80). The principle of the gas generator is to use the heat of the helicopter's engine exhaust gases to vaporise the smoke agent (diesel) during flight. Under favourable weather conditions, it provides a smoke screen with a length of 2000 m, a width of 25–30 m and a height of 10 m in 15 minutes. The Mi-2Ch helicopters were used by the Land Forces and the Navy. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Resonance tests of the SZD-17 Jantar 2B glider carried out in 1979. Poland has a long tradition in glider sports, and designing and manufacturing gliders.
Resonance tests of the SZD-17 Jantar 2B glider carried out in 1979. Poland has a long tradition in glider sports, and designing and manufacturing gliders.

Since before the war until now, dozens of prototypes of training, competition and aerobatic gliders were built in Bielsko-Biala, Krosno, pre-war Lviv and Warsaw. In the past, wood was used to build gliders, later replaced by aluminium and glass fibre-reinforced polymer composites. The newest gliders are built from composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibres. Safety and certification of gliders require proof of their resistance to flutter vibration. Procedures to show that a glider is flutter-free require data obtained from resonance tests. Owing to the designers’ efforts, the researchers from the Institute of Aviation were able to perform resonance tests of tens of different gliders.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Resonance testing of flying objects – methods and analysis of results,” Witold Wiśniowski. Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa, 7/2010 (206). Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses.

Since before the war until now, dozens of prototypes of training, competition and aerobatic gliders were built in Bielsko-Biala, Krosno, pre-war Lviv and Warsaw. In the past, wood was used to build gliders, later replaced by aluminium and glass fibre-reinforced polymer composites. The newest gliders are built from composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibres. Safety and certification of gliders require proof of their resistance to flutter vibration. Procedures to show that a glider is flutter-free require data obtained from resonance tests. Owing to the designers’ efforts, the researchers from the Institute of Aviation were able to perform resonance tests of tens of different gliders.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “Resonance testing of flying objects – methods and analysis of results,” Witold Wiśniowski. Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa, 7/2010 (206). Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses.

Resonance tests of the PZL M-20 Mewa. The 1980s.
Resonance tests of the PZL M-20 Mewa. The 1980s.

The PZL M20 Mewa is a licensed version of the American Piper PA-34-200T Seneca II. In December 1978 (or in January 1977), a cooperation contract was signed between Piper and WSK PZL-Mielec, under which PZL-Mielec manufactured parts for American aircraft and fitted their planes with PZL-Franklin engines in exchange.^^ Krzysztof Piwek became the lead designer of the aircraft. Introduction of the PZL-Franklin 6A-350-C1 and 6AS-350-A engines was the fundamental change that was promptly made in Poland. The assembly of the PZL M20 00 prototype began in the first half of 1978, using elements delivered from the United States. It was flight-tested on 25 July 1979.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The PZL M20 Mewa is a licensed version of the American Piper PA-34-200T Seneca II. In December 1978 (or in January 1977), a cooperation contract was signed between Piper and WSK PZL-Mielec, under which PZL-Mielec manufactured parts for American aircraft and fitted their planes with PZL-Franklin engines in exchange.^^ Krzysztof Piwek became the lead designer of the aircraft. Introduction of the PZL-Franklin 6A-350-C1 and 6AS-350-A engines was the fundamental change that was promptly made in Poland. The assembly of the PZL M20 00 prototype began in the first half of 1978, using elements delivered from the United States. It was flight-tested on 25 July 1979.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Aerodynamic tests of the PZL Sokół model. 1980.
Aerodynamic tests of the PZL Sokół model. 1980.

Research in helicopter aerodynamics began at the Department of Aerodynamics with testing of the SP-GIL helicopter and its successor, the BŻ-4 Żuk. Afterwards, testing was conducted on the fuselages of the helicopters developed and produced in Świdnik: Łątka, Jaszczurka, SM-1 and Mi-2. After the T-3 tunnel at the Institute was modernised and equipped with an effective six-component scale, tests of this type were also conducted there. For example, the tests were conducted on various versions of the W-3 helicopter fuselage.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Research in helicopter aerodynamics began at the Department of Aerodynamics with testing of the SP-GIL helicopter and its successor, the BŻ-4 Żuk. Afterwards, testing was conducted on the fuselages of the helicopters developed and produced in Świdnik: Łątka, Jaszczurka, SM-1 and Mi-2. After the T-3 tunnel at the Institute was modernised and equipped with an effective six-component scale, tests of this type were also conducted there. For example, the tests were conducted on various versions of the W-3 helicopter fuselage.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Aerodynamic tests of the Dar Młodzieży sailing ship model. 1980.
Aerodynamic tests of the Dar Młodzieży sailing ship model. 1980.

A wide range of research was conducted for shipbuilding, from sailing ships to motor vessels. One of the projects was the research on the model of the Dar Młodzieży sailing ship carried out at the beginning of the 1980s in order to optimise the rigging to ensure the best possible aerodynamic properties. To obtain comparative data, models of two known and field-tested sailing ships were examined: the frigate Dar Pomorza and the barque Gorch-Fock II. It was found that the results obtained for the designed ship are correct and there are no reservations as to the streamline air flow, and the ship will perform well with the designed rigging. Similar tests were commissioned by the US Coast Guard for its ship USCGC Eagle. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

A wide range of research was conducted for shipbuilding, from sailing ships to motor vessels. One of the projects was the research on the model of the Dar Młodzieży sailing ship carried out at the beginning of the 1980s in order to optimise the rigging to ensure the best possible aerodynamic properties. To obtain comparative data, models of two known and field-tested sailing ships were examined: the frigate Dar Pomorza and the barque Gorch-Fock II. It was found that the results obtained for the designed ship are correct and there are no reservations as to the streamline air flow, and the ship will perform well with the designed rigging. Similar tests were commissioned by the US Coast Guard for its ship USCGC Eagle. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Resonance tests of the SZD-50 Puchacz glider. 1981.
Resonance tests of the SZD-50 Puchacz glider. 1981.

Due to a longer break in building training and aerobatic two-seater gliders and the fact that few SZD-9 Bocian gliders remained as a result of long term use, the Glider Experimental Works in Bielsko-Biała decided to start working on a new glider of that type. The design by engineer Adam Meus was created in 1976. The first prototype version of the SZD-50-1 Dromader was flight-tested on 21 December 1976. The designer eventually decided to change that name, since it was already used by the PZL M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft, produced at the same time at WSK PZL Mielec.^^ On 20 December 1977, the revised second prototype with the changed name SZD-50-2 Puchacz was flight-tested.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

Due to a longer break in building training and aerobatic two-seater gliders and the fact that few SZD-9 Bocian gliders remained as a result of long term use, the Glider Experimental Works in Bielsko-Biała decided to start working on a new glider of that type. The design by engineer Adam Meus was created in 1976. The first prototype version of the SZD-50-1 Dromader was flight-tested on 21 December 1976. The designer eventually decided to change that name, since it was already used by the PZL M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft, produced at the same time at WSK PZL Mielec.^^ On 20 December 1977, the revised second prototype with the changed name SZD-50-2 Puchacz was flight-tested.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: samolotypolskie.pl

The prototype of the I-22, designated “102,” was flight-tested on 5 March 1985 by the Institute’s test pilot Ludwik Natkaniec.
The prototype of the I-22, designated “102,” was flight-tested on 5 March 1985 by the Institute’s test pilot Ludwik Natkaniec.

The crowning achievement of Polish aviation in the 1970s was the programme of development and production of a two-seat training and combat aircraft. This undertaking was motivated by the need to equip the Polish Air Force with modern aircraft to train its pilots in accordance with the contemporary global standards, as well as the economic and technological reasons, and the desire to maintain Polish economic autonomy. ^^ The Institute was chosen to lead this programme in the field of design, broadly defined research and coordination of the entire project. Polish aviation industry centres, such as PZL-Mielec, PZL-Okęcie, PZL-Rzeszów, and PZL-Hydral, were tasked with the production of aviation equipment and conducting operational tests and flight tests.^^ It should be noted that all individual components were thoroughly tested to ensure compliance with all the requirements of aviation regulations before the prototype was made. After completing all the necessary tests required by aviation regulations, the basic version of the I-22 Iryda prototype was flight-tested at the plant’s airfield in Mielec on 5 March 1985. ^^ The first flight was made by the Institute’s test pilot, Ludwik Natkaniec, which initiated the programme of flight tests of the aircraft, intended to verify its flying characteristics.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The crowning achievement of Polish aviation in the 1970s was the programme of development and production of a two-seat training and combat aircraft. This undertaking was motivated by the need to equip the Polish Air Force with modern aircraft to train its pilots in accordance with the contemporary global standards, as well as the economic and technological reasons, and the desire to maintain Polish economic autonomy. ^^ The Institute was chosen to lead this programme in the field of design, broadly defined research and coordination of the entire project. Polish aviation industry centres, such as PZL-Mielec, PZL-Okęcie, PZL-Rzeszów, and PZL-Hydral, were tasked with the production of aviation equipment and conducting operational tests and flight tests.^^ It should be noted that all individual components were thoroughly tested to ensure compliance with all the requirements of aviation regulations before the prototype was made. After completing all the necessary tests required by aviation regulations, the basic version of the I-22 Iryda prototype was flight-tested at the plant’s airfield in Mielec on 5 March 1985. ^^ The first flight was made by the Institute’s test pilot, Ludwik Natkaniec, which initiated the programme of flight tests of the aircraft, intended to verify its flying characteristics.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Aerodynamic tests of the Wars car. 1987.
Aerodynamic tests of the Wars car. 1987.

Another field of research was the study of aerodynamic loads of various vehicles, such as cars, trucks, buses, rail equipment, ships, and, in sports, of fast motor boats, and even ski jumpers. Such studies were conducted in the T-3 tunnel with real scale models of some objects – passenger cars, motor boats, and motorcycles. The tested vehicles included: different versions of Fiat 126p, Fiat Panda, prototypes Wars and Beskid, and Renault Clio, commissioned by the French car manufacturer.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Another field of research was the study of aerodynamic loads of various vehicles, such as cars, trucks, buses, rail equipment, ships, and, in sports, of fast motor boats, and even ski jumpers. Such studies were conducted in the T-3 tunnel with real scale models of some objects – passenger cars, motor boats, and motorcycles. The tested vehicles included: different versions of Fiat 126p, Fiat Panda, prototypes Wars and Beskid, and Renault Clio, commissioned by the French car manufacturer.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Front landing gear of the W-3 Sokół helicopter tested on a dropping platform.
Front landing gear of the W-3 Sokół helicopter tested on a dropping platform.

The W-3 helicopter, designed PZL-Sokół, designed by PZL-Świdnik engineers had to undergo full-scale certification testing. For the employees of the Wytwórnia Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego in Świdnik, which produced the licensed SM-1 and Mi-2 helicopters, such tests were a serious challenge, despite the support of the Institute of Aviation.^^ The concept for the preliminary design of a light utility helicopter was agreed in 1972 in Moscow by a Polish-Russian group. The design created mostly by Polish designers was accepted in 1975, and in the following year, the basic technical conditions were approved by the joint mock-up committee. Stanislaw Kaminski became the principal designer of the helicopter. Two first prototypes of the W-31 helicopter were constructed in 1978-1979. The first one, marked No. 01, was designed for static tests, the second one – for ground tests. Before entering production, the helicopter required full-scale testing, which included static tests, laboratory fatigue test, and ground and flight tests.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: „PZL-Sokół Helicopter Tests,” Władysław Bubień. Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa, 3 (244), pp. 283–304, Warsaw, 2016.

The W-3 helicopter, designed PZL-Sokół, designed by PZL-Świdnik engineers had to undergo full-scale certification testing. For the employees of the Wytwórnia Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego in Świdnik, which produced the licensed SM-1 and Mi-2 helicopters, such tests were a serious challenge, despite the support of the Institute of Aviation.^^ The concept for the preliminary design of a light utility helicopter was agreed in 1972 in Moscow by a Polish-Russian group. The design created mostly by Polish designers was accepted in 1975, and in the following year, the basic technical conditions were approved by the joint mock-up committee. Stanislaw Kaminski became the principal designer of the helicopter. Two first prototypes of the W-31 helicopter were constructed in 1978-1979. The first one, marked No. 01, was designed for static tests, the second one – for ground tests. Before entering production, the helicopter required full-scale testing, which included static tests, laboratory fatigue test, and ground and flight tests.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: „PZL-Sokół Helicopter Tests,” Władysław Bubień. Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa, 3 (244), pp. 283–304, Warsaw, 2016.

Ski jumper Adam Małysz training in a wind tunnel.
Ski jumper Adam Małysz training in a wind tunnel.

A remarkable research problem was the study of ski jumpers to define the optimum position of the jumper during the inrun, at the take-off and in flight. A team of Polish ski jumpers including Adam Małysz took part in this research. Fastened to special weighing devices placed in a working T-3 tunnel, they could visually, and in a sense tangibly, experience the key aerodynamic conditions during the ski jump.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

A remarkable research problem was the study of ski jumpers to define the optimum position of the jumper during the inrun, at the take-off and in flight. A team of Polish ski jumpers including Adam Małysz took part in this research. Fastened to special weighing devices placed in a working T-3 tunnel, they could visually, and in a sense tangibly, experience the key aerodynamic conditions during the ski jump.^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

The K-15 engine prepared for test with the engine test bed.
The K-15 engine prepared for test with the engine test bed.

At the same time as the I-22 Iryda (Wybrób-300), the Institute worked on the K-15 engine for its power plant (Wyrób-150). Thirteen prototypes were used for the development of the engine, two of which underwent flight tests, with one used for ground qualification test. Tests on the engine test bed began in 1985. These revealed further problems, the most serious being the initially inadequate low-cycle strength of the compressor rotor, due to the high stress levels caused by the initial use of heavy steel inlet stage blades. Flight tests of the engine on a Yak-40 flying engine test bed began in November 1990. ^^ The tested engine was placed in the right nacelle of the airframe, while the measuring apparatus with the telemetric system was located in the passenger cabin. Tests included flying at the speed of up to 500 km/h at an altitude of 4000 m. Further flight tests of the engine, this time on the I-22 Iryda aircraft (serial number 1 ANP01-05) took place on 22 December 1992 in Dęblin. During the lengthy tests of the K-15 engines on this aircraft, the whole usable area of the engine up to the speed of 800 km/h was tested, with tests performed at altitudes up to 10,000 m, as well as fuel consumption measurements, emergency start-ups in the air etc. In December 1993, with over 4000 hours of operation on the ground and 150 in the air, a ground qualification check was performed. Qualification test flights on two aircraft were completed in 1994. In total, 40 K-15 engines were produced for the I-22 Iryda programme. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

At the same time as the I-22 Iryda (Wybrób-300), the Institute worked on the K-15 engine for its power plant (Wyrób-150). Thirteen prototypes were used for the development of the engine, two of which underwent flight tests, with one used for ground qualification test. Tests on the engine test bed began in 1985. These revealed further problems, the most serious being the initially inadequate low-cycle strength of the compressor rotor, due to the high stress levels caused by the initial use of heavy steel inlet stage blades. Flight tests of the engine on a Yak-40 flying engine test bed began in November 1990. ^^ The tested engine was placed in the right nacelle of the airframe, while the measuring apparatus with the telemetric system was located in the passenger cabin. Tests included flying at the speed of up to 500 km/h at an altitude of 4000 m. Further flight tests of the engine, this time on the I-22 Iryda aircraft (serial number 1 ANP01-05) took place on 22 December 1992 in Dęblin. During the lengthy tests of the K-15 engines on this aircraft, the whole usable area of the engine up to the speed of 800 km/h was tested, with tests performed at altitudes up to 10,000 m, as well as fuel consumption measurements, emergency start-ups in the air etc. In December 1993, with over 4000 hours of operation on the ground and 150 in the air, a ground qualification check was performed. Qualification test flights on two aircraft were completed in 1994. In total, 40 K-15 engines were produced for the I-22 Iryda programme. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

I-23 Manager. In the mid 1990s, the Institute started work on a new generation the I-23 light composite 4-seater aircraft under the supervision of the chief designer, engineer Alfred Baron.
I-23 Manager. In the mid 1990s, the Institute started work on a new generation the I-23 light composite 4-seater aircraft under the supervision of the chief designer, engineer Alfred Baron.

Design and research works on the I-23 Manager started in 1994, based on a trilateral contract between State Committee for Scientific Research, PZL-Świdnik S.A. and the Institute of Aviation for the design of a new generation four-seater aircraft called the I-23. The first two prototypes of the aircraft, one for endurance testing and one for flight tests, were made in 1998. The first flight of the aircraft took place on 10 February 1999. The flight test programme, including optimisation tests and full spectrum of measurements to prove compliance with the FAR-23 regulations with Amendment 42, was carried out at the Institute in 1999–2000. The certification tests of the aircraft were completed in 2001 with a certificate of airworthiness according to the American FAR-23 regulations. The owners of the type certificate are the Institute of Aviation and PZL-Świdnik S.A.^^ In 1997, the design was nominated to the prize of Technology and Engineering Agency, and in 2000 the team of aircraft designers was awarded the second prise in Warsaw Technology Master Competition. The aircraft received many favourable reviews from reputable aviation designers and specialists. PZL-Świdnik S.A. was prepared for mass-production of the aircraft. It was to be produced in three engine versions: 160, 180 and 200 hp and with various equipment options. However, business transformations and changes in the structure of production at the beginning of the 2000s caused PZL-Świdnik S.A. to cancel the mass production of the aircraft.^^ The prototype of the I-23 was given to the Aviation Training Centre at the Rzeszów University of Technology, where it is still used to train pilots, and also as a platform for flight tests of new aircraft system design solutions. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “The I-23 MANAGER Light Passenger Aircraft. Selected Research Problems,” Alfred Baron. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2012.

Design and research works on the I-23 Manager started in 1994, based on a trilateral contract between State Committee for Scientific Research, PZL-Świdnik S.A. and the Institute of Aviation for the design of a new generation four-seater aircraft called the I-23. The first two prototypes of the aircraft, one for endurance testing and one for flight tests, were made in 1998. The first flight of the aircraft took place on 10 February 1999. The flight test programme, including optimisation tests and full spectrum of measurements to prove compliance with the FAR-23 regulations with Amendment 42, was carried out at the Institute in 1999–2000. The certification tests of the aircraft were completed in 2001 with a certificate of airworthiness according to the American FAR-23 regulations. The owners of the type certificate are the Institute of Aviation and PZL-Świdnik S.A.^^ In 1997, the design was nominated to the prize of Technology and Engineering Agency, and in 2000 the team of aircraft designers was awarded the second prise in Warsaw Technology Master Competition. The aircraft received many favourable reviews from reputable aviation designers and specialists. PZL-Świdnik S.A. was prepared for mass-production of the aircraft. It was to be produced in three engine versions: 160, 180 and 200 hp and with various equipment options. However, business transformations and changes in the structure of production at the beginning of the 2000s caused PZL-Świdnik S.A. to cancel the mass production of the aircraft.^^ The prototype of the I-23 was given to the Aviation Training Centre at the Rzeszów University of Technology, where it is still used to train pilots, and also as a platform for flight tests of new aircraft system design solutions. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “The I-23 MANAGER Light Passenger Aircraft. Selected Research Problems,” Alfred Baron. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2012.

The PRP-560 Ranger rescue and patrol hovercraft was designed at the Institute for various tasks on inland waters, ice floes, marshlands and coastal areas.
The PRP-560 Ranger rescue and patrol hovercraft was designed at the Institute for various tasks on inland waters, ice floes, marshlands and coastal areas.

Such vehicles are extremely useful for patrol, search and rescue missions of the fire fighters, border guards, police and medical emergency services. The PRP-560 Ranger rescue and patrol hovercraft received a boat type certification issued by the Polish Register of Shipping in 2001. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Such vehicles are extremely useful for patrol, search and rescue missions of the fire fighters, border guards, police and medical emergency services. The PRP-560 Ranger rescue and patrol hovercraft received a boat type certification issued by the Polish Register of Shipping in 2001. ^^ Photo: “85 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2011.^^ Text source: “80 lat Instytutu Lotnictwa,” Jerzy Grzegorzewski, Tadeusz Królikiewicz. Institute of Aviation Publishing Houses, Warsaw, 2009.

Since 2012, the Institute has been working on technology for the production and commercialization of highly concentrated (98%) hydrogen peroxide and developing designs for hydrogen peroxide-fuelled rocket engines, solid propellant engines, and sounding rockets.
Since 2012, the Institute has been working on technology for the production and commercialization of highly concentrated (98%) hydrogen peroxide and developing designs for hydrogen peroxide-fuelled rocket engines, solid propellant engines, and sounding rockets.

HTP-grade hydrogen peroxide is a powerful liquid oxidiser and, relatively speaking, the safest single-component rocket propellant. Unfortunately, at present, this substance, especially in smaller quantities, is practically unavailable on the European market. Consequently, academic and research institutions interested in conducting research using HTP are unable to purchase even small amounts of HTP at a reasonable price. That is why the Institute of Aviation developed a technology to obtain laboratory and technical quantities of relatively cheap hydrogen peroxide at concentrations above 80% (even 98% ) and suitably high purity.^^ Photo: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation^^ Text source: “Hydrogen peroxide 98% HTP-class – an alternative for hydrazine”; Grzegorz Rarata, Paweł Surmacz, Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa, 1 (234), pp. 25-33, Warsaw 2014.

HTP-grade hydrogen peroxide is a powerful liquid oxidiser and, relatively speaking, the safest single-component rocket propellant. Unfortunately, at present, this substance, especially in smaller quantities, is practically unavailable on the European market. Consequently, academic and research institutions interested in conducting research using HTP are unable to purchase even small amounts of HTP at a reasonable price. That is why the Institute of Aviation developed a technology to obtain laboratory and technical quantities of relatively cheap hydrogen peroxide at concentrations above 80% (even 98% ) and suitably high purity.^^ Photo: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation^^ Text source: “Hydrogen peroxide 98% HTP-class – an alternative for hydrazine”; Grzegorz Rarata, Paweł Surmacz, Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa, 1 (234), pp. 25-33, Warsaw 2014.

The test flight of the unmanned experimental aircraft ILX-32.
The test flight of the unmanned experimental aircraft ILX-32.

The ILX-32 was created as part of the MOSUPS project. The MOSUPS project concerned the development of a model of a two-seater tourist aircraft in a system of connected wings which minimizes the induced drag of the airframe. The plane was built under the supervision of professor Cezary Galiński by a consortium composed of: Warsaw University of Technology, Air Force Institute of Technology, Marcin Szender MSP and the Institute of Aviation. The project was funded by the National Research and Development Centre. Year 2014. ^^ Photo and text: Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Aviation

The ILX-32 was created as part of the MOSUPS project. The MOSUPS project concerned the development of a model of a two-seater tourist aircraft in a system of connected wings which minimizes the induced drag of the airframe. The plane was built under the supervision of professor Cezary Galiński by a consortium composed of: Warsaw University of Technology, Air Force Institute of Technology, Marcin Szender MSP and the Institute of Aviation. The project was funded by the National Research and Development Centre. Year 2014. ^^ Photo and text: Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Aviation

As part of the ESPOSA project, the Institute’s experts tested a 169-250 hp power unit on the I-31T aircraft, as a new technology demonstrator. 2016.
As part of the ESPOSA project, the Institute’s experts tested a 169-250 hp power unit on the I-31T aircraft, as a new technology demonstrator. 2016.

The I-31T is a classic design four-seat low-wing aircraft with a turboprop engine and a retractable tricycle landing gear. Its structure is manufactured mainly from composites. The I-31T was designed in accordance with the CS-23 regulations. The I-31T aircraft was used as technology demonstrator in the European ESPOSA project, on which turboprop propulsion tests were conducted.^^ Photo and text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The I-31T is a classic design four-seat low-wing aircraft with a turboprop engine and a retractable tricycle landing gear. Its structure is manufactured mainly from composites. The I-31T was designed in accordance with the CS-23 regulations. The I-31T aircraft was used as technology demonstrator in the European ESPOSA project, on which turboprop propulsion tests were conducted.^^ Photo and text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

SUDIL-1 UAV Interception System.
SUDIL-1 UAV Interception System.

The SUDIL-1 enables the interception of undesirable unmanned aerial vehicles in the air using a net and automatic target tracking with computer image analysis. Thanks to the automated system, the firing of the net occurs at the optimal moment – the captured target is towed or is taken down with a parachute. The SUDIL-1 system was constructed at the Institute in 2016. ^^ Photo and text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The SUDIL-1 enables the interception of undesirable unmanned aerial vehicles in the air using a net and automatic target tracking with computer image analysis. Thanks to the automated system, the firing of the net occurs at the optimal moment – the captured target is towed or is taken down with a parachute. The SUDIL-1 system was constructed at the Institute in 2016. ^^ Photo and text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The ILX-32 undergoing tests in Nevada. The purpose of the operation in the desert in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains was to test the ILX-32 in harsh conditions at a high base altitude (over 1,500 m). 2018.
The ILX-32 undergoing tests in Nevada. The purpose of the operation in the desert in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains was to test the ILX-32 in harsh conditions at a high base altitude (over 1,500 m). 2018.

The ILX-32 was developed under the MOSUPS project funded by the National Centre for Research and Development. The aircraft was designed by a consortium supervised by the Institute of Aviation, whose members were the Air Force Institute of Technology, the Warsaw University of Technology and MSP. The ILX-32 MOSUPS is a model of a hypothetical two-seater recreational aircraft with a closed wing arrangement. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the suitability of using this arrangement in a new generation of light aircraft and to collect data and know-how for the design of such aircraft. The model has a wingspan of about 3 m and a take-off weight of about 25 kg. Numerical analyses and wind tunnel measurements were performed in the course of the project. Finally, flight tests of the design were performed.^^ Photo and text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The ILX-32 was developed under the MOSUPS project funded by the National Centre for Research and Development. The aircraft was designed by a consortium supervised by the Institute of Aviation, whose members were the Air Force Institute of Technology, the Warsaw University of Technology and MSP. The ILX-32 MOSUPS is a model of a hypothetical two-seater recreational aircraft with a closed wing arrangement. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the suitability of using this arrangement in a new generation of light aircraft and to collect data and know-how for the design of such aircraft. The model has a wingspan of about 3 m and a take-off weight of about 25 kg. Numerical analyses and wind tunnel measurements were performed in the course of the project. Finally, flight tests of the design were performed.^^ Photo and text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The ILR-33 BURSZTYN rocket demonstration flight.
The ILR-33 BURSZTYN rocket demonstration flight.

The flight took place on the military training area in Drawsko Pomorskie. The ceiling of 15 km was reached, limited because of safety concerns. The maximum performance of the rocket is much higher, with a maximum speed of over 1200 m/s. The design, developed at the Institute, is the world’s first rocket using 98% hydrogen peroxide as oxidiser. 2017. ^^ The tests at Drawsko were intended to verify the new solutions used in rocket design, including the configuration with control surfaces and the new power system design. Components of the launch support infrastructure were also tested, including the in-flight rocket tracking system. The launch was successful and complete measurement data were obtained.^^ Photo: Błażej Antoni Marciniak^^ Text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The flight took place on the military training area in Drawsko Pomorskie. The ceiling of 15 km was reached, limited because of safety concerns. The maximum performance of the rocket is much higher, with a maximum speed of over 1200 m/s. The design, developed at the Institute, is the world’s first rocket using 98% hydrogen peroxide as oxidiser. 2017. ^^ The tests at Drawsko were intended to verify the new solutions used in rocket design, including the configuration with control surfaces and the new power system design. Components of the launch support infrastructure were also tested, including the in-flight rocket tracking system. The launch was successful and complete measurement data were obtained.^^ Photo: Błażej Antoni Marciniak^^ Text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

In 2020, flight tests of the M28 with a composite engine nacelle were conducted at PZL Mielec.
In 2020, flight tests of the M28 with a composite engine nacelle were conducted at PZL Mielec.

The design of the nacelle produced using modern manufacturing technologies is being developed in cooperation with the Institute and other partners under the SAT-AM (Clean Sky 2) R&D programme, co- financed by the European Union. ^^ The research and development works are carried out under the CLEAN SKY 2 programme financed by the European Commission. Their aim is to develop innovative design processes and manufacturing technologies to increase aircraft flight safety and reduce manufacturing costs. In the future, the new composite engine nacelle, developed under the SAT-AM project, could replace the traditional metal structure, resulting in a weight reduction of at least 10% compared to the current design solutions. ^^ Under this project, a new variant of full-size cockpit for the M28 was developed and produced using innovative aerospace component and assembly manufacturing technologies, such as friction stir welding, 3D printing, jointless technologies, high-speed machining (HSM), autoclave-free composites and superhydrophobic coatings. All those technologies make it possible to reduce the number of components by approximately 35% and reduce the amount of fasteners, which could significantly shorten production and assembly times. ^^ The total budget for the design is over EUR 9 million, including EUR 6 million of co-financing granted by the European Commission. The design is scheduled for completion at the end of 2021, preceded by the final stage involving a detailed analysis of the study and further optimisation of design and technological processes for the composite engine nacelle. ^^ The SAT-AM design consortium is coordinated by the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation and consists of 8 partners, including companies from the aviation industry: PZL Mielec, Eurotech, Szel-Tech, P.W. Metrol, Ultratech, Zakłady Lotnicze Margański & Mysłowski and Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali (CIRA). ^^ Photo: PZL Mielec ^^ Text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

The design of the nacelle produced using modern manufacturing technologies is being developed in cooperation with the Institute and other partners under the SAT-AM (Clean Sky 2) R&D programme, co- financed by the European Union. ^^ The research and development works are carried out under the CLEAN SKY 2 programme financed by the European Commission. Their aim is to develop innovative design processes and manufacturing technologies to increase aircraft flight safety and reduce manufacturing costs. In the future, the new composite engine nacelle, developed under the SAT-AM project, could replace the traditional metal structure, resulting in a weight reduction of at least 10% compared to the current design solutions. ^^ Under this project, a new variant of full-size cockpit for the M28 was developed and produced using innovative aerospace component and assembly manufacturing technologies, such as friction stir welding, 3D printing, jointless technologies, high-speed machining (HSM), autoclave-free composites and superhydrophobic coatings. All those technologies make it possible to reduce the number of components by approximately 35% and reduce the amount of fasteners, which could significantly shorten production and assembly times. ^^ The total budget for the design is over EUR 9 million, including EUR 6 million of co-financing granted by the European Commission. The design is scheduled for completion at the end of 2021, preceded by the final stage involving a detailed analysis of the study and further optimisation of design and technological processes for the composite engine nacelle. ^^ The SAT-AM design consortium is coordinated by the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation and consists of 8 partners, including companies from the aviation industry: PZL Mielec, Eurotech, Szel-Tech, P.W. Metrol, Ultratech, Zakłady Lotnicze Margański & Mysłowski and Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali (CIRA). ^^ Photo: PZL Mielec ^^ Text source: Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation

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